API Reference

This is a mostly auto-generated API. If you are new to bottle, you might find the narrative Tutorial more helpful.

Module Contents

The module defines several functions, constants, and an exception.

debug(mode=True)[source]

Change the debug level. There is only one debug level supported at the moment.

run(app=None, server='wsgiref', host='127.0.0.1', port=8080, interval=1, reloader=False, quiet=False, plugins=None, **kargs)[source]

Start a server instance. This method blocks until the server terminates.

Parameters:
  • app – WSGI application or target string supported by load_app(). (default: default_app())
  • server – Server adapter to use. See server_names keys for valid names or pass a ServerAdapter subclass. (default: wsgiref)
  • host – Server address to bind to. Pass 0.0.0.0 to listens on all interfaces including the external one. (default: 127.0.0.1)
  • port – Server port to bind to. Values below 1024 require root privileges. (default: 8080)
  • reloader – Start auto-reloading server? (default: False)
  • interval – Auto-reloader interval in seconds (default: 1)
  • quiet – Suppress output to stdout and stderr? (default: False)
  • options – Options passed to the server adapter.
load(target, **namespace)[source]

Import a module or fetch an object from a module.

  • package.module returns module as a module object.
  • pack.mod:name returns the module variable name from pack.mod.
  • pack.mod:func() calls pack.mod.func() and returns the result.

The last form accepts not only function calls, but any type of expression. Keyword arguments passed to this function are available as local variables. Example: import_string('re:compile(x)', x='[a-z]')

load_app(target)[source]

Load a bottle application from a module and make sure that the import does not affect the current default application, but returns a separate application object. See load() for the target parameter.

request

A thread-safe instance of Request representing the current request.

response = Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8

A thread-safe instance of Response used to build the HTTP response.

HTTP_CODES = {300: 'Multiple Choices', 301: 'Moved Permanently', 302: 'Found', 303: 'See Other', 304: 'Not Modified', 305: 'Use Proxy', 306: '(Unused)', 307: 'Temporary Redirect', 100: 'Continue', 101: 'Switching Protocols', 400: 'Bad Request', 401: 'Unauthorized', 402: 'Payment Required', 403: 'Forbidden', 404: 'Not Found', 405: 'Method Not Allowed', 406: 'Not Acceptable', 407: 'Proxy Authentication Required', 408: 'Request Timeout', 409: 'Conflict', 410: 'Gone', 411: 'Length Required', 412: 'Precondition Failed', 413: 'Request Entity Too Large', 414: 'Request-URI Too Long', 415: 'Unsupported Media Type', 416: 'Requested Range Not Satisfiable', 417: 'Expectation Failed', 418: "I'm a teapot", 428: 'Precondition Required', 429: 'Too Many Requests', 431: 'Request Header Fields Too Large', 200: 'OK', 201: 'Created', 202: 'Accepted', 203: 'Non-Authoritative Information', 204: 'No Content', 205: 'Reset Content', 206: 'Partial Content', 500: 'Internal Server Error', 501: 'Not Implemented', 502: 'Bad Gateway', 503: 'Service Unavailable', 504: 'Gateway Timeout', 505: 'HTTP Version Not Supported', 511: 'Network Authentication Required'}

A dict to map HTTP status codes (e.g. 404) to phrases (e.g. ‘Not Found’)

app()
default_app()

Return the current Default Application. Actually, these are callable instances of AppStack and implement a stack-like API.

Routing

Bottle maintains a stack of Bottle instances (see app() and AppStack) and uses the top of the stack as a default application for some of the module-level functions and decorators.

route(path, method='GET', callback=None, **options)
get(...)
post(...)
put(...)
delete(...)

Decorator to install a route to the current default application. See Bottle.route() for details.

error(...)

Decorator to install an error handler to the current default application. See Bottle.error() for details.

WSGI and HTTP Utilities

parse_date(ims)[source]

Parse rfc1123, rfc850 and asctime timestamps and return UTC epoch.

parse_auth(header)[source]

Parse rfc2617 HTTP authentication header string (basic) and return (user,pass) tuple or None

cookie_encode(data, key)[source]

Encode and sign a pickle-able object. Return a (byte) string

cookie_decode(data, key)[source]

Verify and decode an encoded string. Return an object or None.

cookie_is_encoded(data)[source]

Return True if the argument looks like a encoded cookie.

yieldroutes(func)[source]

Return a generator for routes that match the signature (name, args) of the func parameter. This may yield more than one route if the function takes optional keyword arguments. The output is best described by example:

a()         -> '/a'
b(x, y)     -> '/b/:x/:y'
c(x, y=5)   -> '/c/:x' and '/c/:x/:y'
d(x=5, y=6) -> '/d' and '/d/:x' and '/d/:x/:y'
path_shift(script_name, path_info, shift=1)[source]

Shift path fragments from PATH_INFO to SCRIPT_NAME and vice versa.

Returns:

The modified paths.

Parameters:
  • script_name – The SCRIPT_NAME path.
  • script_name – The PATH_INFO path.
  • shift – The number of path fragments to shift. May be negative to change the shift direction. (default: 1)

Data Structures

class MultiDict(*a, **k)[source]

This dict stores multiple values per key, but behaves exactly like a normal dict in that it returns only the newest value for any given key. There are special methods available to access the full list of values.

get(key, default=None, index=-1, type=None)[source]

Return the most recent value for a key.

Parameters:
  • default – The default value to be returned if the key is not present or the type conversion fails.
  • index – An index for the list of available values.
  • type – If defined, this callable is used to cast the value into a specific type. Exception are suppressed and result in the default value to be returned.
append(key, value)[source]

Add a new value to the list of values for this key.

replace(key, value)[source]

Replace the list of values with a single value.

getall(key)[source]

Return a (possibly empty) list of values for a key.

getone(key, default=None, index=-1, type=None)

Aliases for WTForms to mimic other multi-dict APIs (Django)

getlist(key)

Return a (possibly empty) list of values for a key.

class HeaderDict(*a, **ka)[source]

A case-insensitive version of MultiDict that defaults to replace the old value instead of appending it.

class FormsDict(*a, **k)[source]

This MultiDict subclass is used to store request form data. Additionally to the normal dict-like item access methods (which return unmodified data as native strings), this container also supports attribute-like access to its values. Attribues are automatiically de- or recoded to match input_encoding (default: ‘utf8’). Missing attributes default to an empty string.

input_encoding = 'utf8'

Encoding used for attribute values.

class WSGIHeaderDict(environ)[source]

This dict-like class wraps a WSGI environ dict and provides convenient access to HTTP_* fields. Keys and values are native strings (2.x bytes or 3.x unicode) and keys are case-insensitive. If the WSGI environment contains non-native string values, these are de- or encoded using a lossless ‘latin1’ character set.

The API will remain stable even on changes to the relevant PEPs. Currently PEP 333, 444 and 3333 are supported. (PEP 444 is the only one that uses non-native strings.)

cgikeys = ('CONTENT_TYPE', 'CONTENT_LENGTH')

List of keys that do not have a ‘HTTP_‘ prefix.

raw(key, default=None)[source]

Return the header value as is (may be bytes or unicode).

class AppStack[source]

A stack-like list. Calling it returns the head of the stack.

pop()

Return the current default application and remove it from the stack.

push(value=None)[source]

Add a new Bottle instance to the stack

Exceptions

exception BottleException[source]

A base class for exceptions used by bottle.

exception HTTPResponse(output='', status=200, header=None)[source]

Used to break execution and immediately finish the response

exception HTTPError(code=500, output='Unknown Error', exception=None, traceback=None, header=None)[source]

Used to generate an error page

exception RouteReset[source]

If raised by a plugin or request handler, the route is reset and all plugins are re-applied.

The Bottle Class

class Bottle(catchall=True, autojson=True, config=None)[source]

WSGI application

config = None

If true, most exceptions are catched and returned as HTTPError

hooks = None

An instance of HooksPlugin. Empty by default.

mount(prefix, app, **options)[source]

Mount an application (Bottle or plain WSGI) to a specific URL prefix. Example:

root_app.mount('/admin/', admin_app)
Parameters:
  • prefix – path prefix or mount-point. If it ends in a slash, that slash is mandatory.
  • app – an instance of Bottle or a WSGI application.

All other parameters are passed to the underlying route() call.

install(plugin)[source]

Add a plugin to the list of plugins and prepare it for being applied to all routes of this application. A plugin may be a simple decorator or an object that implements the Plugin API.

uninstall(plugin)[source]

Uninstall plugins. Pass an instance to remove a specific plugin, a type object to remove all plugins that match that type, a string to remove all plugins with a matching name attribute or True to remove all plugins. Return the list of removed plugins.

reset(route=None)[source]

Reset all routes (force plugins to be re-applied) and clear all caches. If an ID or route object is given, only that specific route is affected.

close()[source]

Close the application and all installed plugins.

match(environ)[source]

Search for a matching route and return a (Route , urlargs) tuple. The second value is a dictionary with parameters extracted from the URL. Raise HTTPError (404/405) on a non-match.

get_url(routename, **kargs)[source]

Return a string that matches a named route

route(path=None, method='GET', callback=None, name=None, apply=None, skip=None, **config)[source]

A decorator to bind a function to a request URL. Example:

@app.route('/hello/:name')
def hello(name):
    return 'Hello %s' % name

The :name part is a wildcard. See Router for syntax details.

Parameters:
  • path – Request path or a list of paths to listen to. If no path is specified, it is automatically generated from the signature of the function.
  • method – HTTP method (GET, POST, PUT, ...) or a list of methods to listen to. (default: GET)
  • callback – An optional shortcut to avoid the decorator syntax. route(..., callback=func) equals route(...)(func)
  • name – The name for this route. (default: None)
  • apply – A decorator or plugin or a list of plugins. These are applied to the route callback in addition to installed plugins.
  • skip – A list of plugins, plugin classes or names. Matching plugins are not installed to this route. True skips all.

Any additional keyword arguments are stored as route-specific configuration and passed to plugins (see Plugin.apply()).

get(path=None, method='GET', **options)[source]

Equals route().

post(path=None, method='POST', **options)[source]

Equals route() with a POST method parameter.

put(path=None, method='PUT', **options)[source]

Equals route() with a PUT method parameter.

delete(path=None, method='DELETE', **options)[source]

Equals route() with a DELETE method parameter.

error(code=500)[source]

Decorator: Register an output handler for a HTTP error code

hook(name)[source]

Return a decorator that attaches a callback to a hook.

handle(path, method='GET')[source]

(deprecated) Execute the first matching route callback and return the result. HTTPResponse exceptions are catched and returned. If Bottle.catchall is true, other exceptions are catched as well and returned as HTTPError instances (500).

wsgi(environ, start_response)[source]

The bottle WSGI-interface.

class Route(app, rule, method, callback, name=None, plugins=None, skiplist=None, **config)[source]

This class wraps a route callback along with route specific metadata and configuration and applies Plugins on demand. It is also responsible for turing an URL path rule into a regular expression usable by the Router.

app = None

The application this route is installed to.

rule = None

The path-rule string (e.g. /wiki/:page).

method = None

The HTTP method as a string (e.g. GET).

callback = None

The original callback with no plugins applied. Useful for introspection.

name = None

The name of the route (if specified) or None.

plugins = None

A list of route-specific plugins (see Bottle.route()).

skiplist = None

A list of plugins to not apply to this route (see Bottle.route()).

config = None

Additional keyword arguments passed to the Bottle.route() decorator are stored in this dictionary. Used for route-specific plugin configuration and meta-data.

reset()[source]

Forget any cached values. The next time call is accessed, all plugins are re-applied.

prepare()[source]

Do all on-demand work immediately (useful for debugging).

all_plugins()[source]

Yield all Plugins affecting this route.

The Request Object

The Request class wraps a WSGI environment and provides helpful methods to parse and access form data, cookies, file uploads and other metadata. Most of the attributes are read-only.

You usually don’t instantiate Request yourself, but use the module-level bottle.request instance. This instance is thread-local and refers to the current request, or in other words, the request that is currently processed by the request handler in the current context. Thread locality means that you can safely use a global instance in a multithreaded environment.

Request

alias of LocalRequest

class LocalRequest[source]

A thread-local subclass of BaseRequest.

bind(environ)

Wrap a WSGI environ dictionary.

class BaseRequest(environ)[source]

A wrapper for WSGI environment dictionaries that adds a lot of convenient access methods and properties. Most of them are read-only.

MEMFILE_MAX = 102400

Maximum size of memory buffer for body in bytes.

MAX_PARAMS = 100

Maximum number pr GET or POST parameters per request

environ = None

The wrapped WSGI environ dictionary. This is the only real attribute. All other attributes actually are read-only properties.

path[source]

The value of PATH_INFO with exactly one prefixed slash (to fix broken clients and avoid the “empty path” edge case).

method[source]

The REQUEST_METHOD value as an uppercase string.

headers[source]

A WSGIHeaderDict that provides case-insensitive access to HTTP request headers.

get_header(name, default=None)[source]

Return the value of a request header, or a given default value.

cookies[source]

Cookies parsed into a FormsDict. Signed cookies are NOT decoded. Use get_cookie() if you expect signed cookies.

Return the content of a cookie. To read a Signed Cookie, the secret must match the one used to create the cookie (see BaseResponse.set_cookie()). If anything goes wrong (missing cookie or wrong signature), return a default value.

query[source]

The query_string parsed into a FormsDict. These values are sometimes called “URL arguments” or “GET parameters”, but not to be confused with “URL wildcards” as they are provided by the Router.

forms[source]

Form values parsed from an url-encoded or multipart/form-data encoded POST or PUT request body. The result is retuned as a FormsDict. All keys and values are strings. File uploads are stored separately in files.

params[source]

A FormsDict with the combined values of query and forms. File uploads are stored in files.

files[source]

File uploads parsed from an url-encoded or multipart/form-data encoded POST or PUT request body. The values are instances of cgi.FieldStorage. The most important attributes are:

filename
The filename, if specified; otherwise None; this is the client side filename, not the file name on which it is stored (that’s a temporary file you don’t deal with)
file
The file(-like) object from which you can read the data.
value
The value as a string; for file uploads, this transparently reads the file every time you request the value. Do not do this on big files.
json[source]

If the Content-Type header is application/json, this property holds the parsed content of the request body. Only requests smaller than MEMFILE_MAX are processed to avoid memory exhaustion.

body[source]

The HTTP request body as a seek-able file-like object. Depending on MEMFILE_MAX, this is either a temporary file or a io.BytesIO instance. Accessing this property for the first time reads and replaces the wsgi.input environ variable. Subsequent accesses just do a seek(0) on the file object.

GET

An alias for query.

POST[source]

The values of forms and files combined into a single FormsDict. Values are either strings (form values) or instances of cgi.FieldStorage (file uploads).

COOKIES[source]

Alias for cookies (deprecated).

url[source]

The full request URI including hostname and scheme. If your app lives behind a reverse proxy or load balancer and you get confusing results, make sure that the X-Forwarded-Host header is set correctly.

urlparts[source]

The url string as an urlparse.SplitResult tuple. The tuple contains (scheme, host, path, query_string and fragment), but the fragment is always empty because it is not visible to the server.

fullpath[source]

Request path including script_name (if present).

query_string[source]

The raw query part of the URL (everything in between ? and #) as a string.

script_name[source]

The initial portion of the URL’s path that was removed by a higher level (server or routing middleware) before the application was called. This script path is returned with leading and tailing slashes.

path_shift(shift=1)[source]
Shift path segments from path to script_name and
vice versa.
Parameters:shift – The number of path segments to shift. May be negative to change the shift direction. (default: 1)
content_length[source]

The request body length as an integer. The client is responsible to set this header. Otherwise, the real length of the body is unknown and -1 is returned. In this case, body will be empty.

content_type[source]

The Content-Type header as a lowercase-string (default: empty).

is_xhr[source]

True if the request was triggered by a XMLHttpRequest. This only works with JavaScript libraries that support the X-Requested-With header (most of the popular libraries do).

is_ajax[source]

Alias for is_xhr. “Ajax” is not the right term.

auth[source]

HTTP authentication data as a (user, password) tuple. This implementation currently supports basic (not digest) authentication only. If the authentication happened at a higher level (e.g. in the front web-server or a middleware), the password field is None, but the user field is looked up from the REMOTE_USER environ variable. On any errors, None is returned.

remote_route[source]

A list of all IPs that were involved in this request, starting with the client IP and followed by zero or more proxies. This does only work if all proxies support the `X-Forwarded-For header. Note that this information can be forged by malicious clients.

remote_addr[source]

The client IP as a string. Note that this information can be forged by malicious clients.

copy()[source]

Return a new Request with a shallow environ copy.

The Response Object

The Response class stores the HTTP status code as well as headers and cookies that are to be sent to the client. Similar to bottle.request there is a thread-local bottle.response instance that can be used to adjust the current response. Moreover, you can instantiate Response and return it from your request handler. In this case, the custom instance overrules the headers and cookies defined in the global one.

Response

alias of LocalResponse

class LocalResponse(body='', status=None, **headers)[source]

A thread-local subclass of BaseResponse.

class BaseResponse(body='', status=None, **headers)[source]

Storage class for a response body as well as headers and cookies.

This class does support dict-like case-insensitive item-access to headers, but is NOT a dict. Most notably, iterating over a response yields parts of the body and not the headers.

copy()[source]

Returns a copy of self.

status_line[source]

The HTTP status line as a string (e.g. 404 Not Found).

status_code[source]

The HTTP status code as an integer (e.g. 404).

status

A writeable property to change the HTTP response status. It accepts either a numeric code (100-999) or a string with a custom reason phrase (e.g. “404 Brain not found”). Both status_line and status_code are updates accordingly. The return value is always a numeric code.

headers[source]

An instance of HeaderDict, a case-insensitive dict-like view on the response headers.

get_header(name, default=None)[source]

Return the value of a previously defined header. If there is no header with that name, return a default value.

set_header(name, value, append=False)[source]

Create a new response header, replacing any previously defined headers with the same name.

add_header(name, value)[source]

Add an additional response header, not removing duplicates.

iter_headers()[source]

Yield (header, value) tuples, skipping headers that are not allowed with the current response status code.

headerlist[source]

WSGI conform list of (header, value) tuples.

content_type

Current value of the ‘Content-Type’ header.

content_length

Current value of the ‘Content-Length’ header.

charset[source]

Return the charset specified in the content-type header (default: utf8).

COOKIES[source]

A dict-like SimpleCookie instance. This should not be used directly. See set_cookie().

Create a new cookie or replace an old one. If the secret parameter is set, create a Signed Cookie (described below).

Parameters:
  • name – the name of the cookie.
  • value – the value of the cookie.
  • secret – a signature key required for signed cookies.

Additionally, this method accepts all RFC 2109 attributes that are supported by cookie.Morsel, including:

Parameters:
  • max_age – maximum age in seconds. (default: None)
  • expires – a datetime object or UNIX timestamp. (default: None)
  • domain – the domain that is allowed to read the cookie. (default: current domain)
  • path – limits the cookie to a given path (default: current path)
  • secure – limit the cookie to HTTPS connections (default: off).
  • httponly – prevents client-side javascript to read this cookie (default: off, requires Python 2.6 or newer).

If neither expires nor max_age is set (default), the cookie will expire at the end of the browser session (as soon as the browser window is closed).

Signed cookies may store any pickle-able object and are cryptographically signed to prevent manipulation. Keep in mind that cookies are limited to 4kb in most browsers.

Warning: Signed cookies are not encrypted (the client can still see the content) and not copy-protected (the client can restore an old cookie). The main intention is to make pickling and unpickling save, not to store secret information at client side.

Delete a cookie. Be sure to use the same domain and path settings as used to create the cookie.

Templates

All template engines supported by bottle implement the BaseTemplate API. This way it is possible to switch and mix template engines without changing the application code at all.

class BaseTemplate(source=None, name=None, lookup=, []encoding='utf8', **settings)[source]

Base class and minimal API for template adapters

__init__(source=None, name=None, lookup=, []encoding='utf8', **settings)[source]

Create a new template. If the source parameter (str or buffer) is missing, the name argument is used to guess a template filename. Subclasses can assume that self.source and/or self.filename are set. Both are strings. The lookup, encoding and settings parameters are stored as instance variables. The lookup parameter stores a list containing directory paths. The encoding parameter should be used to decode byte strings or files. The settings parameter contains a dict for engine-specific settings.

classmethod search(name, lookup=[])[source]

Search name in all directories specified in lookup. First without, then with common extensions. Return first hit.

classmethod global_config(key, *args)[source]

This reads or sets the global settings stored in class.settings.

prepare(**options)[source]

Run preparations (parsing, caching, ...). It should be possible to call this again to refresh a template or to update settings.

render(*args, **kwargs)[source]

Render the template with the specified local variables and return a single byte or unicode string. If it is a byte string, the encoding must match self.encoding. This method must be thread-safe! Local variables may be provided in dictionaries (*args) or directly, as keywords (**kwargs).

view(tpl_name, **defaults)[source]

Decorator: renders a template for a handler. The handler can control its behavior like that:

  • return a dict of template vars to fill out the template
  • return something other than a dict and the view decorator will not process the template, but return the handler result as is. This includes returning a HTTPResponse(dict) to get, for instance, JSON with autojson or other castfilters.
template(*args, **kwargs)[source]

Get a rendered template as a string iterator. You can use a name, a filename or a template string as first parameter. Template rendering arguments can be passed as dictionaries or directly (as keyword arguments).

You can write your own adapter for your favourite template engine or use one of the predefined adapters. Currently there are four fully supported template engines:

Class URL Decorator Render function
SimpleTemplate SimpleTemplate Engine view() template()
MakoTemplate http://www.makotemplates.org mako_view() mako_template()
CheetahTemplate http://www.cheetahtemplate.org/ cheetah_view() cheetah_template()
Jinja2Template http://jinja.pocoo.org/ jinja2_view() jinja2_template()

To use MakoTemplate as your default template engine, just import its specialised decorator and render function:

from bottle import mako_view as view, mako_template as template

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