Source code for bottle

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""
Bottle is a fast and simple micro-framework for small web applications. It
offers request dispatching (Routes) with url parameter support, templates,
a built-in HTTP Server and adapters for many third party WSGI/HTTP-server and
template engines - all in a single file and with no dependencies other than the
Python Standard Library.

Homepage and documentation: http://bottlepy.org/

Copyright (c) 2012, Marcel Hellkamp.
License: MIT (see LICENSE for details)
"""

from __future__ import with_statement

__author__ = 'Marcel Hellkamp'
__version__ = '0.11.7'
__license__ = 'MIT'

# The gevent server adapter needs to patch some modules before they are imported
# This is why we parse the commandline parameters here but handle them later
if __name__ == '__main__':
    from optparse import OptionParser
    _cmd_parser = OptionParser(usage="usage: %prog [options] package.module:app")
    _opt = _cmd_parser.add_option
    _opt("--version", action="store_true", help="show version number.")
    _opt("-b", "--bind", metavar="ADDRESS", help="bind socket to ADDRESS.")
    _opt("-s", "--server", default='wsgiref', help="use SERVER as backend.")
    _opt("-p", "--plugin", action="append", help="install additional plugin/s.")
    _opt("--debug", action="store_true", help="start server in debug mode.")
    _opt("--reload", action="store_true", help="auto-reload on file changes.")
    _cmd_options, _cmd_args = _cmd_parser.parse_args()
    if _cmd_options.server and _cmd_options.server.startswith('gevent'):
        import gevent.monkey; gevent.monkey.patch_all()

import base64, cgi, email.utils, functools, hmac, imp, itertools, mimetypes,\
        os, re, subprocess, sys, tempfile, threading, time, urllib, warnings

from datetime import date as datedate, datetime, timedelta
from tempfile import TemporaryFile
from traceback import format_exc, print_exc

try: from json import dumps as json_dumps, loads as json_lds
except ImportError: # pragma: no cover
    try: from simplejson import dumps as json_dumps, loads as json_lds
    except ImportError:
        try: from django.utils.simplejson import dumps as json_dumps, loads as json_lds
        except ImportError:
            def json_dumps(data):
                raise ImportError("JSON support requires Python 2.6 or simplejson.")
            json_lds = json_dumps



# We now try to fix 2.5/2.6/3.1/3.2 incompatibilities.
# It ain't pretty but it works... Sorry for the mess.

py   = sys.version_info
py3k = py >= (3,0,0)
py25 = py <  (2,6,0)
py31 = (3,1,0) <= py < (3,2,0)

# Workaround for the missing "as" keyword in py3k.
def _e(): return sys.exc_info()[1]

# Workaround for the "print is a keyword/function" Python 2/3 dilemma
# and a fallback for mod_wsgi (resticts stdout/err attribute access)
try:
    _stdout, _stderr = sys.stdout.write, sys.stderr.write
except IOError:
    _stdout = lambda x: sys.stdout.write(x)
    _stderr = lambda x: sys.stderr.write(x)

# Lots of stdlib and builtin differences.
if py3k:
    import http.client as httplib
    import _thread as thread
    from urllib.parse import urljoin, SplitResult as UrlSplitResult
    from urllib.parse import urlencode, quote as urlquote, unquote as urlunquote
    urlunquote = functools.partial(urlunquote, encoding='latin1')
    from http.cookies import SimpleCookie
    from collections import MutableMapping as DictMixin
    import pickle
    from io import BytesIO
    basestring = str
    unicode = str
    json_loads = lambda s: json_lds(touni(s))
    callable = lambda x: hasattr(x, '__call__')
    imap = map
else: # 2.x
    import httplib
    import thread
    from urlparse import urljoin, SplitResult as UrlSplitResult
    from urllib import urlencode, quote as urlquote, unquote as urlunquote
    from Cookie import SimpleCookie
    from itertools import imap
    import cPickle as pickle
    from StringIO import StringIO as BytesIO
    if py25:
        msg = "Python 2.5 support may be dropped in future versions of Bottle."
        warnings.warn(msg, DeprecationWarning)
        from UserDict import DictMixin
        def next(it): return it.next()
        bytes = str
    else: # 2.6, 2.7
        from collections import MutableMapping as DictMixin
    json_loads = json_lds

# Some helpers for string/byte handling
def tob(s, enc='utf8'):
    return s.encode(enc) if isinstance(s, unicode) else bytes(s)
def touni(s, enc='utf8', err='strict'):
    return s.decode(enc, err) if isinstance(s, bytes) else unicode(s)
tonat = touni if py3k else tob

# 3.2 fixes cgi.FieldStorage to accept bytes (which makes a lot of sense).
# 3.1 needs a workaround.
if py31:
    from io import TextIOWrapper
    class NCTextIOWrapper(TextIOWrapper):
        def close(self): pass # Keep wrapped buffer open.

# File uploads (which are implemented as empty FiledStorage instances...)
# have a negative truth value. That makes no sense, here is a fix.
class FieldStorage(cgi.FieldStorage):
    def __nonzero__(self): return bool(self.list or self.file)
    if py3k: __bool__ = __nonzero__

# A bug in functools causes it to break if the wrapper is an instance method
def update_wrapper(wrapper, wrapped, *a, **ka):
    try: functools.update_wrapper(wrapper, wrapped, *a, **ka)
    except AttributeError: pass



# These helpers are used at module level and need to be defined first.
# And yes, I know PEP-8, but sometimes a lower-case classname makes more sense.

def depr(message):
    warnings.warn(message, DeprecationWarning, stacklevel=3)

def makelist(data): # This is just to handy
    if isinstance(data, (tuple, list, set, dict)): return list(data)
    elif data: return [data]
    else: return []


class DictProperty(object):
    ''' Property that maps to a key in a local dict-like attribute. '''
    def __init__(self, attr, key=None, read_only=False):
        self.attr, self.key, self.read_only = attr, key, read_only

    def __call__(self, func):
        functools.update_wrapper(self, func, updated=[])
        self.getter, self.key = func, self.key or func.__name__
        return self

    def __get__(self, obj, cls):
        if obj is None: return self
        key, storage = self.key, getattr(obj, self.attr)
        if key not in storage: storage[key] = self.getter(obj)
        return storage[key]

    def __set__(self, obj, value):
        if self.read_only: raise AttributeError("Read-Only property.")
        getattr(obj, self.attr)[self.key] = value

    def __delete__(self, obj):
        if self.read_only: raise AttributeError("Read-Only property.")
        del getattr(obj, self.attr)[self.key]


class cached_property(object):
    ''' A property that is only computed once per instance and then replaces
        itself with an ordinary attribute. Deleting the attribute resets the
        property. '''

    def __init__(self, func):
        self.func = func

    def __get__(self, obj, cls):
        if obj is None: return self
        value = obj.__dict__[self.func.__name__] = self.func(obj)
        return value


class lazy_attribute(object):
    ''' A property that caches itself to the class object. '''
    def __init__(self, func):
        functools.update_wrapper(self, func, updated=[])
        self.getter = func

    def __get__(self, obj, cls):
        value = self.getter(cls)
        setattr(cls, self.__name__, value)
        return value






###############################################################################
# Exceptions and Events ########################################################
###############################################################################


[docs]class BottleException(Exception): """ A base class for exceptions used by bottle. """ pass
############################################################################### # Routing ###################################################################### ############################################################################### class RouteError(BottleException): """ This is a base class for all routing related exceptions """ class RouteReset(BottleException): """ If raised by a plugin or request handler, the route is reset and all plugins are re-applied. """ class RouterUnknownModeError(RouteError): pass class RouteSyntaxError(RouteError): """ The route parser found something not supported by this router """ class RouteBuildError(RouteError): """ The route could not been built """ class Router(object): ''' A Router is an ordered collection of route->target pairs. It is used to efficiently match WSGI requests against a number of routes and return the first target that satisfies the request. The target may be anything, usually a string, ID or callable object. A route consists of a path-rule and a HTTP method. The path-rule is either a static path (e.g. `/contact`) or a dynamic path that contains wildcards (e.g. `/wiki/<page>`). The wildcard syntax and details on the matching order are described in docs:`routing`. ''' default_pattern = '[^/]+' default_filter = 're' #: Sorry for the mess. It works. Trust me. rule_syntax = re.compile('(\\\\*)'\ '(?:(?::([a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z_0-9]*)?()(?:#(.*?)#)?)'\ '|(?:<([a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z_0-9]*)?(?::([a-zA-Z_]*)'\ '(?::((?:\\\\.|[^\\\\>]+)+)?)?)?>))') def __init__(self, strict=False): self.rules = {} # A {rule: Rule} mapping self.builder = {} # A rule/name->build_info mapping self.static = {} # Cache for static routes: {path: {method: target}} self.dynamic = [] # Cache for dynamic routes. See _compile() #: If true, static routes are no longer checked first. self.strict_order = strict self.filters = {'re': self.re_filter, 'int': self.int_filter, 'float': self.float_filter, 'path': self.path_filter} def re_filter(self, conf): return conf or self.default_pattern, None, None def int_filter(self, conf): return r'-?\d+', int, lambda x: str(int(x)) def float_filter(self, conf): return r'-?[\d.]+', float, lambda x: str(float(x)) def path_filter(self, conf): return r'.+?', None, None def add_filter(self, name, func): ''' Add a filter. The provided function is called with the configuration string as parameter and must return a (regexp, to_python, to_url) tuple. The first element is a string, the last two are callables or None. ''' self.filters[name] = func def parse_rule(self, rule): ''' Parses a rule into a (name, filter, conf) token stream. If mode is None, name contains a static rule part. ''' offset, prefix = 0, '' for match in self.rule_syntax.finditer(rule): prefix += rule[offset:match.start()] g = match.groups() if len(g[0])%2: # Escaped wildcard prefix += match.group(0)[len(g[0]):] offset = match.end() continue if prefix: yield prefix, None, None name, filtr, conf = g[1:4] if not g[2] is None else g[4:7] if not filtr: filtr = self.default_filter yield name, filtr, conf or None offset, prefix = match.end(), '' if offset <= len(rule) or prefix: yield prefix+rule[offset:], None, None def add(self, rule, method, target, name=None): ''' Add a new route or replace the target for an existing route. ''' if rule in self.rules: self.rules[rule][method] = target if name: self.builder[name] = self.builder[rule] return target = self.rules[rule] = {method: target} # Build pattern and other structures for dynamic routes anons = 0 # Number of anonymous wildcards pattern = '' # Regular expression pattern filters = [] # Lists of wildcard input filters builder = [] # Data structure for the URL builder is_static = True for key, mode, conf in self.parse_rule(rule): if mode: is_static = False mask, in_filter, out_filter = self.filters[mode](conf) if key: pattern += '(?P<%s>%s)' % (key, mask) else: pattern += '(?:%s)' % mask key = 'anon%d' % anons; anons += 1 if in_filter: filters.append((key, in_filter)) builder.append((key, out_filter or str)) elif key: pattern += re.escape(key) builder.append((None, key)) self.builder[rule] = builder if name: self.builder[name] = builder if is_static and not self.strict_order: self.static[self.build(rule)] = target return def fpat_sub(m): return m.group(0) if len(m.group(1)) % 2 else m.group(1) + '(?:' flat_pattern = re.sub(r'(\\*)(\(\?P<[^>]*>|\((?!\?))', fpat_sub, pattern) try: re_match = re.compile('^(%s)$' % pattern).match except re.error: raise RouteSyntaxError("Could not add Route: %s (%s)" % (rule, _e())) def match(path): """ Return an url-argument dictionary. """ url_args = re_match(path).groupdict() for name, wildcard_filter in filters: try: url_args[name] = wildcard_filter(url_args[name]) except ValueError: raise HTTPError(400, 'Path has wrong format.') return url_args try: combined = '%s|(^%s$)' % (self.dynamic[-1][0].pattern, flat_pattern) self.dynamic[-1] = (re.compile(combined), self.dynamic[-1][1]) self.dynamic[-1][1].append((match, target)) except (AssertionError, IndexError): # AssertionError: Too many groups self.dynamic.append((re.compile('(^%s$)' % flat_pattern), [(match, target)])) return match def build(self, _name, *anons, **query): ''' Build an URL by filling the wildcards in a rule. ''' builder = self.builder.get(_name) if not builder: raise RouteBuildError("No route with that name.", _name) try: for i, value in enumerate(anons): query['anon%d'%i] = value url = ''.join([f(query.pop(n)) if n else f for (n,f) in builder]) return url if not query else url+'?'+urlencode(query) except KeyError: raise RouteBuildError('Missing URL argument: %r' % _e().args[0]) def match(self, environ): ''' Return a (target, url_agrs) tuple or raise HTTPError(400/404/405). ''' path, targets, urlargs = environ['PATH_INFO'] or '/', None, {} if path in self.static: targets = self.static[path] else: for combined, rules in self.dynamic: match = combined.match(path) if not match: continue getargs, targets = rules[match.lastindex - 1] urlargs = getargs(path) if getargs else {} break if not targets: raise HTTPError(404, "Not found: " + repr(environ['PATH_INFO'])) method = environ['REQUEST_METHOD'].upper() if method in targets: return targets[method], urlargs if method == 'HEAD' and 'GET' in targets: return targets['GET'], urlargs if 'ANY' in targets: return targets['ANY'], urlargs allowed = [verb for verb in targets if verb != 'ANY'] if 'GET' in allowed and 'HEAD' not in allowed: allowed.append('HEAD') raise HTTPError(405, "Method not allowed.", Allow=",".join(allowed))
[docs]class Route(object): ''' This class wraps a route callback along with route specific metadata and configuration and applies Plugins on demand. It is also responsible for turing an URL path rule into a regular expression usable by the Router. ''' def __init__(self, app, rule, method, callback, name=None, plugins=None, skiplist=None, **config): #: The application this route is installed to. self.app = app #: The path-rule string (e.g. ``/wiki/:page``). self.rule = rule #: The HTTP method as a string (e.g. ``GET``). self.method = method #: The original callback with no plugins applied. Useful for introspection. self.callback = callback #: The name of the route (if specified) or ``None``. self.name = name or None #: A list of route-specific plugins (see :meth:`Bottle.route`). self.plugins = plugins or [] #: A list of plugins to not apply to this route (see :meth:`Bottle.route`). self.skiplist = skiplist or [] #: Additional keyword arguments passed to the :meth:`Bottle.route` #: decorator are stored in this dictionary. Used for route-specific #: plugin configuration and meta-data. self.config = ConfigDict(config) def __call__(self, *a, **ka): depr("Some APIs changed to return Route() instances instead of"\ " callables. Make sure to use the Route.call method and not to"\ " call Route instances directly.") return self.call(*a, **ka) @cached_property def call(self): ''' The route callback with all plugins applied. This property is created on demand and then cached to speed up subsequent requests.''' return self._make_callback()
[docs] def reset(self): ''' Forget any cached values. The next time :attr:`call` is accessed, all plugins are re-applied. ''' self.__dict__.pop('call', None)
[docs] def prepare(self): ''' Do all on-demand work immediately (useful for debugging).''' self.call
@property def _context(self): depr('Switch to Plugin API v2 and access the Route object directly.') return dict(rule=self.rule, method=self.method, callback=self.callback, name=self.name, app=self.app, config=self.config, apply=self.plugins, skip=self.skiplist)
[docs] def all_plugins(self): ''' Yield all Plugins affecting this route. ''' unique = set() for p in reversed(self.app.plugins + self.plugins): if True in self.skiplist: break name = getattr(p, 'name', False) if name and (name in self.skiplist or name in unique): continue if p in self.skiplist or type(p) in self.skiplist: continue if name: unique.add(name) yield p
def _make_callback(self): callback = self.callback for plugin in self.all_plugins(): try: if hasattr(plugin, 'apply'): api = getattr(plugin, 'api', 1) context = self if api > 1 else self._context callback = plugin.apply(callback, context) else: callback = plugin(callback) except RouteReset: # Try again with changed configuration. return self._make_callback() if not callback is self.callback: update_wrapper(callback, self.callback) return callback def __repr__(self): return '<%s %r %r>' % (self.method, self.rule, self.callback)
############################################################################### # Application Object ########################################################### ###############################################################################
[docs]class Bottle(object): """ Each Bottle object represents a single, distinct web application and consists of routes, callbacks, plugins, resources and configuration. Instances are callable WSGI applications. :param catchall: If true (default), handle all exceptions. Turn off to let debugging middleware handle exceptions. """ def __init__(self, catchall=True, autojson=True): #: If true, most exceptions are caught and returned as :exc:`HTTPError` self.catchall = catchall #: A :class:`ResourceManager` for application files self.resources = ResourceManager() #: A :class:`ConfigDict` for app specific configuration. self.config = ConfigDict() self.config.autojson = autojson self.routes = [] # List of installed :class:`Route` instances. self.router = Router() # Maps requests to :class:`Route` instances. self.error_handler = {} # Core plugins self.plugins = [] # List of installed plugins. self.hooks = HooksPlugin() self.install(self.hooks) if self.config.autojson: self.install(JSONPlugin()) self.install(TemplatePlugin())
[docs] def mount(self, prefix, app, **options): ''' Mount an application (:class:`Bottle` or plain WSGI) to a specific URL prefix. Example:: root_app.mount('/admin/', admin_app) :param prefix: path prefix or `mount-point`. If it ends in a slash, that slash is mandatory. :param app: an instance of :class:`Bottle` or a WSGI application. All other parameters are passed to the underlying :meth:`route` call. ''' if isinstance(app, basestring): prefix, app = app, prefix depr('Parameter order of Bottle.mount() changed.') # 0.10 segments = [p for p in prefix.split('/') if p] if not segments: raise ValueError('Empty path prefix.') path_depth = len(segments) def mountpoint_wrapper(): try: request.path_shift(path_depth) rs = HTTPResponse([]) def start_response(status, headerlist): rs.status = status for name, value in headerlist: rs.add_header(name, value) return rs.body.append body = app(request.environ, start_response) if body and rs.body: body = itertools.chain(rs.body, body) rs.body = body or rs.body return rs finally: request.path_shift(-path_depth) options.setdefault('skip', True) options.setdefault('method', 'ANY') options.setdefault('mountpoint', {'prefix': prefix, 'target': app}) options['callback'] = mountpoint_wrapper self.route('/%s/<:re:.*>' % '/'.join(segments), **options) if not prefix.endswith('/'): self.route('/' + '/'.join(segments), **options)
[docs] def merge(self, routes): ''' Merge the routes of another :class:`Bottle` application or a list of :class:`Route` objects into this application. The routes keep their 'owner', meaning that the :data:`Route.app` attribute is not changed. ''' if isinstance(routes, Bottle): routes = routes.routes for route in routes: self.add_route(route)
[docs] def install(self, plugin): ''' Add a plugin to the list of plugins and prepare it for being applied to all routes of this application. A plugin may be a simple decorator or an object that implements the :class:`Plugin` API. ''' if hasattr(plugin, 'setup'): plugin.setup(self) if not callable(plugin) and not hasattr(plugin, 'apply'): raise TypeError("Plugins must be callable or implement .apply()") self.plugins.append(plugin) self.reset() return plugin
[docs] def uninstall(self, plugin): ''' Uninstall plugins. Pass an instance to remove a specific plugin, a type object to remove all plugins that match that type, a string to remove all plugins with a matching ``name`` attribute or ``True`` to remove all plugins. Return the list of removed plugins. ''' removed, remove = [], plugin for i, plugin in list(enumerate(self.plugins))[::-1]: if remove is True or remove is plugin or remove is type(plugin) \ or getattr(plugin, 'name', True) == remove: removed.append(plugin) del self.plugins[i] if hasattr(plugin, 'close'): plugin.close() if removed: self.reset() return removed
[docs] def run(self, **kwargs): ''' Calls :func:`run` with the same parameters. ''' run(self, **kwargs)
[docs] def reset(self, route=None): ''' Reset all routes (force plugins to be re-applied) and clear all caches. If an ID or route object is given, only that specific route is affected. ''' if route is None: routes = self.routes elif isinstance(route, Route): routes = [route] else: routes = [self.routes[route]] for route in routes: route.reset() if DEBUG: for route in routes: route.prepare() self.hooks.trigger('app_reset')
[docs] def close(self): ''' Close the application and all installed plugins. ''' for plugin in self.plugins: if hasattr(plugin, 'close'): plugin.close() self.stopped = True
[docs] def match(self, environ): """ Search for a matching route and return a (:class:`Route` , urlargs) tuple. The second value is a dictionary with parameters extracted from the URL. Raise :exc:`HTTPError` (404/405) on a non-match.""" return self.router.match(environ)
[docs] def get_url(self, routename, **kargs): """ Return a string that matches a named route """ scriptname = request.environ.get('SCRIPT_NAME', '').strip('/') + '/' location = self.router.build(routename, **kargs).lstrip('/') return urljoin(urljoin('/', scriptname), location)
[docs] def add_route(self, route): ''' Add a route object, but do not change the :data:`Route.app` attribute.''' self.routes.append(route) self.router.add(route.rule, route.method, route, name=route.name) if DEBUG: route.prepare()
[docs] def route(self, path=None, method='GET', callback=None, name=None, apply=None, skip=None, **config): """ A decorator to bind a function to a request URL. Example:: @app.route('/hello/:name') def hello(name): return 'Hello %s' % name The ``:name`` part is a wildcard. See :class:`Router` for syntax details. :param path: Request path or a list of paths to listen to. If no path is specified, it is automatically generated from the signature of the function. :param method: HTTP method (`GET`, `POST`, `PUT`, ...) or a list of methods to listen to. (default: `GET`) :param callback: An optional shortcut to avoid the decorator syntax. ``route(..., callback=func)`` equals ``route(...)(func)`` :param name: The name for this route. (default: None) :param apply: A decorator or plugin or a list of plugins. These are applied to the route callback in addition to installed plugins. :param skip: A list of plugins, plugin classes or names. Matching plugins are not installed to this route. ``True`` skips all. Any additional keyword arguments are stored as route-specific configuration and passed to plugins (see :meth:`Plugin.apply`). """ if callable(path): path, callback = None, path plugins = makelist(apply) skiplist = makelist(skip) def decorator(callback): # TODO: Documentation and tests if isinstance(callback, basestring): callback = load(callback) for rule in makelist(path) or yieldroutes(callback): for verb in makelist(method): verb = verb.upper() route = Route(self, rule, verb, callback, name=name, plugins=plugins, skiplist=skiplist, **config) self.add_route(route) return callback return decorator(callback) if callback else decorator
[docs] def get(self, path=None, method='GET', **options): """ Equals :meth:`route`. """ return self.route(path, method, **options)
[docs] def post(self, path=None, method='POST', **options): """ Equals :meth:`route` with a ``POST`` method parameter. """ return self.route(path, method, **options)
[docs] def put(self, path=None, method='PUT', **options): """ Equals :meth:`route` with a ``PUT`` method parameter. """ return self.route(path, method, **options)
[docs] def delete(self, path=None, method='DELETE', **options): """ Equals :meth:`route` with a ``DELETE`` method parameter. """ return self.route(path, method, **options)
[docs] def error(self, code=500): """ Decorator: Register an output handler for a HTTP error code""" def wrapper(handler): self.error_handler[int(code)] = handler return handler return wrapper
[docs] def hook(self, name): """ Return a decorator that attaches a callback to a hook. Three hooks are currently implemented: - before_request: Executed once before each request - after_request: Executed once after each request - app_reset: Called whenever :meth:`reset` is called. """ def wrapper(func): self.hooks.add(name, func) return func return wrapper
[docs] def handle(self, path, method='GET'): """ (deprecated) Execute the first matching route callback and return the result. :exc:`HTTPResponse` exceptions are caught and returned. If :attr:`Bottle.catchall` is true, other exceptions are caught as well and returned as :exc:`HTTPError` instances (500). """ depr("This method will change semantics in 0.10. Try to avoid it.") if isinstance(path, dict): return self._handle(path) return self._handle({'PATH_INFO': path, 'REQUEST_METHOD': method.upper()})
def default_error_handler(self, res): return tob(template(ERROR_PAGE_TEMPLATE, e=res)) def _handle(self, environ): try: environ['bottle.app'] = self request.bind(environ) response.bind() route, args = self.router.match(environ) environ['route.handle'] = route environ['bottle.route'] = route environ['route.url_args'] = args return route.call(**args) except HTTPResponse: return _e() except RouteReset: route.reset() return self._handle(environ) except (KeyboardInterrupt, SystemExit, MemoryError): raise except Exception: if not self.catchall: raise stacktrace = format_exc() environ['wsgi.errors'].write(stacktrace) return HTTPError(500, "Internal Server Error", _e(), stacktrace) def _cast(self, out, peek=None): """ Try to convert the parameter into something WSGI compatible and set correct HTTP headers when possible. Support: False, str, unicode, dict, HTTPResponse, HTTPError, file-like, iterable of strings and iterable of unicodes """ # Empty output is done here if not out: if 'Content-Length' not in response: response['Content-Length'] = 0 return [] # Join lists of byte or unicode strings. Mixed lists are NOT supported if isinstance(out, (tuple, list))\ and isinstance(out[0], (bytes, unicode)): out = out[0][0:0].join(out) # b'abc'[0:0] -> b'' # Encode unicode strings if isinstance(out, unicode): out = out.encode(response.charset) # Byte Strings are just returned if isinstance(out, bytes): if 'Content-Length' not in response: response['Content-Length'] = len(out) return [out] # HTTPError or HTTPException (recursive, because they may wrap anything) # TODO: Handle these explicitly in handle() or make them iterable. if isinstance(out, HTTPError): out.apply(response) out = self.error_handler.get(out.status_code, self.default_error_handler)(out) return self._cast(out) if isinstance(out, HTTPResponse): out.apply(response) return self._cast(out.body) # File-like objects. if hasattr(out, 'read'): if 'wsgi.file_wrapper' in request.environ: return request.environ['wsgi.file_wrapper'](out) elif hasattr(out, 'close') or not hasattr(out, '__iter__'): return WSGIFileWrapper(out) # Handle Iterables. We peek into them to detect their inner type. try: out = iter(out) first = next(out) while not first: first = next(out) except StopIteration: return self._cast('') except HTTPResponse: first = _e() except (KeyboardInterrupt, SystemExit, MemoryError): raise except Exception: if not self.catchall: raise first = HTTPError(500, 'Unhandled exception', _e(), format_exc()) # These are the inner types allowed in iterator or generator objects. if isinstance(first, HTTPResponse): return self._cast(first) if isinstance(first, bytes): return itertools.chain([first], out) if isinstance(first, unicode): return imap(lambda x: x.encode(response.charset), itertools.chain([first], out)) return self._cast(HTTPError(500, 'Unsupported response type: %s'\ % type(first)))
[docs] def wsgi(self, environ, start_response): """ The bottle WSGI-interface. """ try: out = self._cast(self._handle(environ)) # rfc2616 section 4.3 if response._status_code in (100, 101, 204, 304)\ or environ['REQUEST_METHOD'] == 'HEAD': if hasattr(out, 'close'): out.close() out = [] start_response(response._status_line, response.headerlist) return out except (KeyboardInterrupt, SystemExit, MemoryError): raise except Exception: if not self.catchall: raise err = '<h1>Critical error while processing request: %s</h1>' \ % html_escape(environ.get('PATH_INFO', '/')) if DEBUG: err += '<h2>Error:</h2>\n<pre>\n%s\n</pre>\n' \ '<h2>Traceback:</h2>\n<pre>\n%s\n</pre>\n' \ % (html_escape(repr(_e())), html_escape(format_exc())) environ['wsgi.errors'].write(err) headers = [('Content-Type', 'text/html; charset=UTF-8')] start_response('500 INTERNAL SERVER ERROR', headers) return [tob(err)]
def __call__(self, environ, start_response): ''' Each instance of :class:'Bottle' is a WSGI application. ''' return self.wsgi(environ, start_response)
############################################################################### # HTTP and WSGI Tools ########################################################## ###############################################################################
[docs]class BaseRequest(object): """ A wrapper for WSGI environment dictionaries that adds a lot of convenient access methods and properties. Most of them are read-only. Adding new attributes to a request actually adds them to the environ dictionary (as 'bottle.request.ext.<name>'). This is the recommended way to store and access request-specific data. """ __slots__ = ('environ') #: Maximum size of memory buffer for :attr:`body` in bytes. MEMFILE_MAX = 102400 #: Maximum number pr GET or POST parameters per request MAX_PARAMS = 100 def __init__(self, environ=None): """ Wrap a WSGI environ dictionary. """ #: The wrapped WSGI environ dictionary. This is the only real attribute. #: All other attributes actually are read-only properties. self.environ = {} if environ is None else environ self.environ['bottle.request'] = self @DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.app', read_only=True)
[docs] def app(self): ''' Bottle application handling this request. ''' raise RuntimeError('This request is not connected to an application.')
@property def path(self): ''' The value of ``PATH_INFO`` with exactly one prefixed slash (to fix broken clients and avoid the "empty path" edge case). ''' return '/' + self.environ.get('PATH_INFO','').lstrip('/') @property def method(self): ''' The ``REQUEST_METHOD`` value as an uppercase string. ''' return self.environ.get('REQUEST_METHOD', 'GET').upper() @DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.headers', read_only=True)
[docs] def headers(self): ''' A :class:`WSGIHeaderDict` that provides case-insensitive access to HTTP request headers. ''' return WSGIHeaderDict(self.environ)
[docs] def get_header(self, name, default=None): ''' Return the value of a request header, or a given default value. ''' return self.headers.get(name, default)
@DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.cookies', read_only=True)
[docs] def cookies(self): """ Cookies parsed into a :class:`FormsDict`. Signed cookies are NOT decoded. Use :meth:`get_cookie` if you expect signed cookies. """ cookies = SimpleCookie(self.environ.get('HTTP_COOKIE','')) cookies = list(cookies.values())[:self.MAX_PARAMS] return FormsDict((c.key, c.value) for c in cookies)
@DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.query', read_only=True)
[docs] def query(self): ''' The :attr:`query_string` parsed into a :class:`FormsDict`. These values are sometimes called "URL arguments" or "GET parameters", but not to be confused with "URL wildcards" as they are provided by the :class:`Router`. ''' get = self.environ['bottle.get'] = FormsDict() pairs = _parse_qsl(self.environ.get('QUERY_STRING', '')) for key, value in pairs[:self.MAX_PARAMS]: get[key] = value return get
@DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.forms', read_only=True)
[docs] def forms(self): """ Form values parsed from an `url-encoded` or `multipart/form-data` encoded POST or PUT request body. The result is retuned as a :class:`FormsDict`. All keys and values are strings. File uploads are stored separately in :attr:`files`. """ forms = FormsDict() for name, item in self.POST.allitems(): if not hasattr(item, 'filename'): forms[name] = item return forms
@DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.params', read_only=True)
[docs] def params(self): """ A :class:`FormsDict` with the combined values of :attr:`query` and :attr:`forms`. File uploads are stored in :attr:`files`. """ params = FormsDict() for key, value in self.query.allitems(): params[key] = value for key, value in self.forms.allitems(): params[key] = value return params
@DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.files', read_only=True)
[docs] def files(self): """ File uploads parsed from an `url-encoded` or `multipart/form-data` encoded POST or PUT request body. The values are instances of :class:`cgi.FieldStorage`. The most important attributes are: filename The filename, if specified; otherwise None; this is the client side filename, *not* the file name on which it is stored (that's a temporary file you don't deal with) file The file(-like) object from which you can read the data. value The value as a *string*; for file uploads, this transparently reads the file every time you request the value. Do not do this on big files. """ files = FormsDict() for name, item in self.POST.allitems(): if hasattr(item, 'filename'): files[name] = item return files
@DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.json', read_only=True)
[docs] def json(self): ''' If the ``Content-Type`` header is ``application/json``, this property holds the parsed content of the request body. Only requests smaller than :attr:`MEMFILE_MAX` are processed to avoid memory exhaustion. ''' ctype = self.environ.get('CONTENT_TYPE', '').lower().split(';')[0] if ctype == 'application/json' \ and 0 < self.content_length < self.MEMFILE_MAX: return json_loads(self.body.read(self.MEMFILE_MAX)) return None
@DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.body', read_only=True) def _body(self): maxread = max(0, self.content_length) stream = self.environ['wsgi.input'] body = BytesIO() if maxread < self.MEMFILE_MAX else TemporaryFile(mode='w+b') while maxread > 0: part = stream.read(min(maxread, self.MEMFILE_MAX)) if not part: break body.write(part) maxread -= len(part) self.environ['wsgi.input'] = body body.seek(0) return body @property def body(self): """ The HTTP request body as a seek-able file-like object. Depending on :attr:`MEMFILE_MAX`, this is either a temporary file or a :class:`io.BytesIO` instance. Accessing this property for the first time reads and replaces the ``wsgi.input`` environ variable. Subsequent accesses just do a `seek(0)` on the file object. """ self._body.seek(0) return self._body #: An alias for :attr:`query`. GET = query @DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.post', read_only=True)
[docs] def POST(self): """ The values of :attr:`forms` and :attr:`files` combined into a single :class:`FormsDict`. Values are either strings (form values) or instances of :class:`cgi.FieldStorage` (file uploads). """ post = FormsDict() # We default to application/x-www-form-urlencoded for everything that # is not multipart and take the fast path (also: 3.1 workaround) if not self.content_type.startswith('multipart/'): maxlen = max(0, min(self.content_length, self.MEMFILE_MAX)) pairs = _parse_qsl(tonat(self.body.read(maxlen), 'latin1')) for key, value in pairs[:self.MAX_PARAMS]: post[key] = value return post safe_env = {'QUERY_STRING':''} # Build a safe environment for cgi for key in ('REQUEST_METHOD', 'CONTENT_TYPE', 'CONTENT_LENGTH'): if key in self.environ: safe_env[key] = self.environ[key] args = dict(fp=self.body, environ=safe_env, keep_blank_values=True) if py31: args['fp'] = NCTextIOWrapper(args['fp'], encoding='ISO-8859-1', newline='\n') elif py3k: args['encoding'] = 'ISO-8859-1' data = FieldStorage(**args) for item in (data.list or [])[:self.MAX_PARAMS]: post[item.name] = item if item.filename else item.value return post
@property def COOKIES(self): ''' Alias for :attr:`cookies` (deprecated). ''' depr('BaseRequest.COOKIES was renamed to BaseRequest.cookies (lowercase).') return self.cookies @property def url(self): """ The full request URI including hostname and scheme. If your app lives behind a reverse proxy or load balancer and you get confusing results, make sure that the ``X-Forwarded-Host`` header is set correctly. """ return self.urlparts.geturl() @DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.request.urlparts', read_only=True)
[docs] def urlparts(self): ''' The :attr:`url` string as an :class:`urlparse.SplitResult` tuple. The tuple contains (scheme, host, path, query_string and fragment), but the fragment is always empty because it is not visible to the server. ''' env = self.environ http = env.get('HTTP_X_FORWARDED_PROTO') or env.get('wsgi.url_scheme', 'http') host = env.get('HTTP_X_FORWARDED_HOST') or env.get('HTTP_HOST') if not host: # HTTP 1.1 requires a Host-header. This is for HTTP/1.0 clients. host = env.get('SERVER_NAME', '127.0.0.1') port = env.get('SERVER_PORT') if port and port != ('80' if http == 'http' else '443'): host += ':' + port path = urlquote(self.fullpath) return UrlSplitResult(http, host, path, env.get('QUERY_STRING'), '')
@property def fullpath(self): """ Request path including :attr:`script_name` (if present). """ return urljoin(self.script_name, self.path.lstrip('/')) @property def query_string(self): """ The raw :attr:`query` part of the URL (everything in between ``?`` and ``#``) as a string. """ return self.environ.get('QUERY_STRING', '') @property def script_name(self): ''' The initial portion of the URL's `path` that was removed by a higher level (server or routing middleware) before the application was called. This script path is returned with leading and tailing slashes. ''' script_name = self.environ.get('SCRIPT_NAME', '').strip('/') return '/' + script_name + '/' if script_name else '/'
[docs] def path_shift(self, shift=1): ''' Shift path segments from :attr:`path` to :attr:`script_name` and vice versa. :param shift: The number of path segments to shift. May be negative to change the shift direction. (default: 1) ''' script = self.environ.get('SCRIPT_NAME','/') self['SCRIPT_NAME'], self['PATH_INFO'] = path_shift(script, self.path, shift)
@property def content_length(self): ''' The request body length as an integer. The client is responsible to set this header. Otherwise, the real length of the body is unknown and -1 is returned. In this case, :attr:`body` will be empty. ''' return int(self.environ.get('CONTENT_LENGTH') or -1) @property def content_type(self): ''' The Content-Type header as a lowercase-string (default: empty). ''' return self.environ.get('CONTENT_TYPE', '').lower() @property def is_xhr(self): ''' True if the request was triggered by a XMLHttpRequest. This only works with JavaScript libraries that support the `X-Requested-With` header (most of the popular libraries do). ''' requested_with = self.environ.get('HTTP_X_REQUESTED_WITH','') return requested_with.lower() == 'xmlhttprequest' @property def is_ajax(self): ''' Alias for :attr:`is_xhr`. "Ajax" is not the right term. ''' return self.is_xhr @property def auth(self): """ HTTP authentication data as a (user, password) tuple. This implementation currently supports basic (not digest) authentication only. If the authentication happened at a higher level (e.g. in the front web-server or a middleware), the password field is None, but the user field is looked up from the ``REMOTE_USER`` environ variable. On any errors, None is returned. """ basic = parse_auth(self.environ.get('HTTP_AUTHORIZATION','')) if basic: return basic ruser = self.environ.get('REMOTE_USER') if ruser: return (ruser, None) return None @property def remote_route(self): """ A list of all IPs that were involved in this request, starting with the client IP and followed by zero or more proxies. This does only work if all proxies support the ```X-Forwarded-For`` header. Note that this information can be forged by malicious clients. """ proxy = self.environ.get('HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR') if proxy: return [ip.strip() for ip in proxy.split(',')] remote = self.environ.get('REMOTE_ADDR') return [remote] if remote else [] @property def remote_addr(self): """ The client IP as a string. Note that this information can be forged by malicious clients. """ route = self.remote_route return route[0] if route else None
[docs] def copy(self): """ Return a new :class:`Request` with a shallow :attr:`environ` copy. """ return Request(self.environ.copy())
def get(self, value, default=None): return self.environ.get(value, default) def __getitem__(self, key): return self.environ[key] def __delitem__(self, key): self[key] = ""; del(self.environ[key]) def __iter__(self): return iter(self.environ) def __len__(self): return len(self.environ) def keys(self): return self.environ.keys() def __setitem__(self, key, value): """ Change an environ value and clear all caches that depend on it. """ if self.environ.get('bottle.request.readonly'): raise KeyError('The environ dictionary is read-only.') self.environ[key] = value todelete = () if key == 'wsgi.input': todelete = ('body', 'forms', 'files', 'params', 'post', 'json') elif key == 'QUERY_STRING': todelete = ('query', 'params') elif key.startswith('HTTP_'): todelete = ('headers', 'cookies') for key in todelete: self.environ.pop('bottle.request.'+key, None) def __repr__(self): return '<%s: %s %s>' % (self.__class__.__name__, self.method, self.url) def __getattr__(self, name): ''' Search in self.environ for additional user defined attributes. ''' try: var = self.environ['bottle.request.ext.%s'%name] return var.__get__(self) if hasattr(var, '__get__') else var except KeyError: raise AttributeError('Attribute %r not defined.' % name) def __setattr__(self, name, value): if name == 'environ': return object.__setattr__(self, name, value) self.environ['bottle.request.ext.%s'%name] = value
def _hkey(s): return s.title().replace('_','-') class HeaderProperty(object): def __init__(self, name, reader=None, writer=str, default=''): self.name, self.default = name, default self.reader, self.writer = reader, writer self.__doc__ = 'Current value of the %r header.' % name.title() def __get__(self, obj, cls): if obj is None: return self value = obj.headers.get(self.name, self.default) return self.reader(value) if self.reader else value def __set__(self, obj, value): obj.headers[self.name] = self.writer(value) def __delete__(self, obj): del obj.headers[self.name]
[docs]class BaseResponse(object): """ Storage class for a response body as well as headers and cookies. This class does support dict-like case-insensitive item-access to headers, but is NOT a dict. Most notably, iterating over a response yields parts of the body and not the headers. """ default_status = 200 default_content_type = 'text/html; charset=UTF-8' # Header blacklist for specific response codes # (rfc2616 section 10.2.3 and 10.3.5) bad_headers = { 204: set(('Content-Type',)), 304: set(('Allow', 'Content-Encoding', 'Content-Language', 'Content-Length', 'Content-Range', 'Content-Type', 'Content-Md5', 'Last-Modified'))} def __init__(self, body='', status=None, **headers): self._cookies = None self._headers = {} self.body = body self.status = status or self.default_status if headers: for name, value in headers.items(): self[name] = value
[docs] def copy(self): ''' Returns a copy of self. ''' copy = Response() copy.status = self.status copy._headers = dict((k, v[:]) for (k, v) in self._headers.items()) return copy
def __iter__(self): return iter(self.body) def close(self): if hasattr(self.body, 'close'): self.body.close() @property def status_line(self): ''' The HTTP status line as a string (e.g. ``404 Not Found``).''' return self._status_line @property def status_code(self): ''' The HTTP status code as an integer (e.g. 404).''' return self._status_code def _set_status(self, status): if isinstance(status, int): code, status = status, _HTTP_STATUS_LINES.get(status) elif ' ' in status: status = status.strip() code = int(status.split()[0]) else: raise ValueError('String status line without a reason phrase.') if not 100 <= code <= 999: raise ValueError('Status code out of range.') self._status_code = code self._status_line = str(status or ('%d Unknown' % code)) def _get_status(self): return self._status_line status = property(_get_status, _set_status, None, ''' A writeable property to change the HTTP response status. It accepts either a numeric code (100-999) or a string with a custom reason phrase (e.g. "404 Brain not found"). Both :data:`status_line` and :data:`status_code` are updated accordingly. The return value is always a status string. ''') del _get_status, _set_status @property def headers(self): ''' An instance of :class:`HeaderDict`, a case-insensitive dict-like view on the response headers. ''' hdict = HeaderDict() hdict.dict = self._headers return hdict def __contains__(self, name): return _hkey(name) in self._headers def __delitem__(self, name): del self._headers[_hkey(name)] def __getitem__(self, name): return self._headers[_hkey(name)][-1] def __setitem__(self, name, value): self._headers[_hkey(name)] = [str(value)]
[docs] def get_header(self, name, default=None): ''' Return the value of a previously defined header. If there is no header with that name, return a default value. ''' return self._headers.get(_hkey(name), [default])[-1]
[docs] def set_header(self, name, value): ''' Create a new response header, replacing any previously defined headers with the same name. ''' self._headers[_hkey(name)] = [str(value)]
[docs] def add_header(self, name, value): ''' Add an additional response header, not removing duplicates. ''' self._headers.setdefault(_hkey(name), []).append(str(value))
[docs] def iter_headers(self): ''' Yield (header, value) tuples, skipping headers that are not allowed with the current response status code. ''' return self.headerlist
def wsgiheader(self): depr('The wsgiheader method is deprecated. See headerlist.') #0.10 return self.headerlist @property def headerlist(self): ''' WSGI conform list of (header, value) tuples. ''' out = [] headers = list(self._headers.items()) if 'Content-Type' not in self._headers: headers.append(('Content-Type', [self.default_content_type])) if self._status_code in self.bad_headers: bad_headers = self.bad_headers[self._status_code] headers = [h for h in headers if h[0] not in bad_headers] out += [(name, val) for name, vals in headers for val in vals] if self._cookies: for c in self._cookies.values(): out.append(('Set-Cookie', c.OutputString())) return out content_type = HeaderProperty('Content-Type') content_length = HeaderProperty('Content-Length', reader=int) @property def charset(self): """ Return the charset specified in the content-type header (default: utf8). """ if 'charset=' in self.content_type: return self.content_type.split('charset=')[-1].split(';')[0].strip() return 'UTF-8' @property def COOKIES(self): """ A dict-like SimpleCookie instance. This should not be used directly. See :meth:`set_cookie`. """ depr('The COOKIES dict is deprecated. Use `set_cookie()` instead.') # 0.10 if not self._cookies: self._cookies = SimpleCookie() return self._cookies def __repr__(self): out = '' for name, value in self.headerlist: out += '%s: %s\n' % (name.title(), value.strip()) return out
#: Thread-local storage for :class:`LocalRequest` and :class:`LocalResponse` #: attributes. _lctx = threading.local() def local_property(name): def fget(self): try: return getattr(_lctx, name) except AttributeError: raise RuntimeError("Request context not initialized.") def fset(self, value): setattr(_lctx, name, value) def fdel(self): delattr(_lctx, name) return property(fget, fset, fdel, 'Thread-local property stored in :data:`_lctx.%s`' % name)
[docs]class LocalRequest(BaseRequest): ''' A thread-local subclass of :class:`BaseRequest` with a different set of attribues for each thread. There is usually only one global instance of this class (:data:`request`). If accessed during a request/response cycle, this instance always refers to the *current* request (even on a multithreaded server). ''' bind = BaseRequest.__init__ environ = local_property('request_environ')
[docs]class LocalResponse(BaseResponse): ''' A thread-local subclass of :class:`BaseResponse` with a different set of attribues for each thread. There is usually only one global instance of this class (:data:`response`). Its attributes are used to build the HTTP response at the end of the request/response cycle. ''' bind = BaseResponse.__init__ _status_line = local_property('response_status_line') _status_code = local_property('response_status_code') _cookies = local_property('response_cookies') _headers = local_property('response_headers') body = local_property('response_body')
Request = BaseRequest Response = BaseResponse
[docs]class HTTPResponse(Response, BottleException): def __init__(self, body='', status=None, header=None, **headers): if header or 'output' in headers: depr('Call signature changed (for the better)') if header: headers.update(header) if 'output' in headers: body = headers.pop('output') super(HTTPResponse, self).__init__(body, status, **headers) def apply(self, response): response._status_code = self._status_code response._status_line = self._status_line response._headers = self._headers response._cookies = self._cookies response.body = self.body def _output(self, value=None): depr('Use HTTPResponse.body instead of HTTPResponse.output') if value is None: return self.body self.body = value output = property(_output, _output, doc='Alias for .body')
[docs]class HTTPError(HTTPResponse): default_status = 500 def __init__(self, status=None, body=None, exception=None, traceback=None, header=None, **headers): self.exception = exception self.traceback = traceback super(HTTPError, self).__init__(body, status, header, **headers)
############################################################################### # Plugins ###################################################################### ############################################################################### class PluginError(BottleException): pass class JSONPlugin(object): name = 'json' api = 2 def __init__(self, json_dumps=json_dumps): self.json_dumps = json_dumps def apply(self, callback, route): dumps = self.json_dumps if not dumps: return callback def wrapper(*a, **ka): rv = callback(*a, **ka) if isinstance(rv, dict): #Attempt to serialize, raises exception on failure json_response = dumps(rv) #Set content type only if serialization succesful response.content_type = 'application/json' return json_response return rv return wrapper class HooksPlugin(object): name = 'hooks' api = 2 _names = 'before_request', 'after_request', 'app_reset' def __init__(self): self.hooks = dict((name, []) for name in self._names) self.app = None def _empty(self): return not (self.hooks['before_request'] or self.hooks['after_request']) def setup(self, app): self.app = app def add(self, name, func): ''' Attach a callback to a hook. ''' was_empty = self._empty() self.hooks.setdefault(name, []).append(func) if self.app and was_empty and not self._empty(): self.app.reset() def remove(self, name, func): ''' Remove a callback from a hook. ''' was_empty = self._empty() if name in self.hooks and func in self.hooks[name]: self.hooks[name].remove(func) if self.app and not was_empty and self._empty(): self.app.reset() def trigger(self, name, *a, **ka): ''' Trigger a hook and return a list of results. ''' hooks = self.hooks[name] if ka.pop('reversed', False): hooks = hooks[::-1] return [hook(*a, **ka) for hook in hooks] def apply(self, callback, route): if self._empty(): return callback def wrapper(*a, **ka): self.trigger('before_request') rv = callback(*a, **ka) self.trigger('after_request', reversed=True) return rv return wrapper class TemplatePlugin(object): ''' This plugin applies the :func:`view` decorator to all routes with a `template` config parameter. If the parameter is a tuple, the second element must be a dict with additional options (e.g. `template_engine`) or default variables for the template. ''' name = 'template' api = 2 def apply(self, callback, route): conf = route.config.get('template') if isinstance(conf, (tuple, list)) and len(conf) == 2: return view(conf[0], **conf[1])(callback) elif isinstance(conf, str) and 'template_opts' in route.config: depr('The `template_opts` parameter is deprecated.') #0.9 return view(conf, **route.config['template_opts'])(callback) elif isinstance(conf, str): return view(conf)(callback) else: return callback #: Not a plugin, but part of the plugin API. TODO: Find a better place. class _ImportRedirect(object): def __init__(self, name, impmask): ''' Create a virtual package that redirects imports (see PEP 302). ''' self.name = name self.impmask = impmask self.module = sys.modules.setdefault(name, imp.new_module(name)) self.module.__dict__.update({'__file__': __file__, '__path__': [], '__all__': [], '__loader__': self}) sys.meta_path.append(self) def find_module(self, fullname, path=None): if '.' not in fullname: return packname, modname = fullname.rsplit('.', 1) if packname != self.name: return return self def load_module(self, fullname): if fullname in sys.modules: return sys.modules[fullname] packname, modname = fullname.rsplit('.', 1) realname = self.impmask % modname __import__(realname) module = sys.modules[fullname] = sys.modules[realname] setattr(self.module, modname, module) module.__loader__ = self return module ############################################################################### # Common Utilities ############################################################# ###############################################################################
[docs]class MultiDict(DictMixin): """ This dict stores multiple values per key, but behaves exactly like a normal dict in that it returns only the newest value for any given key. There are special methods available to access the full list of values. """ def __init__(self, *a, **k): self.dict = dict((k, [v]) for (k, v) in dict(*a, **k).items()) def __len__(self): return len(self.dict) def __iter__(self): return iter(self.dict) def __contains__(self, key): return key in self.dict def __delitem__(self, key): del self.dict[key] def __getitem__(self, key): return self.dict[key][-1] def __setitem__(self, key, value): self.append(key, value) def keys(self): return self.dict.keys() if py3k: def values(self): return (v[-1] for v in self.dict.values()) def items(self): return ((k, v[-1]) for k, v in self.dict.items()) def allitems(self): return ((k, v) for k, vl in self.dict.items() for v in vl) iterkeys = keys itervalues = values iteritems = items iterallitems = allitems else: def values(self): return [v[-1] for v in self.dict.values()] def items(self): return [(k, v[-1]) for k, v in self.dict.items()] def iterkeys(self): return self.dict.iterkeys() def itervalues(self): return (v[-1] for v in self.dict.itervalues()) def iteritems(self): return ((k, v[-1]) for k, v in self.dict.iteritems()) def iterallitems(self): return ((k, v) for k, vl in self.dict.iteritems() for v in vl) def allitems(self): return [(k, v) for k, vl in self.dict.iteritems() for v in vl]
[docs] def get(self, key, default=None, index=-1, type=None): ''' Return the most recent value for a key. :param default: The default value to be returned if the key is not present or the type conversion fails. :param index: An index for the list of available values. :param type: If defined, this callable is used to cast the value into a specific type. Exception are suppressed and result in the default value to be returned. ''' try: val = self.dict[key][index] return type(val) if type else val except Exception: pass return default
[docs] def append(self, key, value): ''' Add a new value to the list of values for this key. ''' self.dict.setdefault(key, []).append(value)
[docs] def replace(self, key, value): ''' Replace the list of values with a single value. ''' self.dict[key] = [value]
[docs] def getall(self, key): ''' Return a (possibly empty) list of values for a key. ''' return self.dict.get(key) or []
#: Aliases for WTForms to mimic other multi-dict APIs (Django) getone = get getlist = getall
[docs]class FormsDict(MultiDict): ''' This :class:`MultiDict` subclass is used to store request form data. Additionally to the normal dict-like item access methods (which return unmodified data as native strings), this container also supports attribute-like access to its values. Attributes are automatically de- or recoded to match :attr:`input_encoding` (default: 'utf8'). Missing attributes default to an empty string. ''' #: Encoding used for attribute values. input_encoding = 'utf8' #: If true (default), unicode strings are first encoded with `latin1` #: and then decoded to match :attr:`input_encoding`. recode_unicode = True def _fix(self, s, encoding=None): if isinstance(s, unicode) and self.recode_unicode: # Python 3 WSGI s = s.encode('latin1') if isinstance(s, bytes): # Python 2 WSGI return s.decode(encoding or self.input_encoding) return s
[docs] def decode(self, encoding=None): ''' Returns a copy with all keys and values de- or recoded to match :attr:`input_encoding`. Some libraries (e.g. WTForms) want a unicode dictionary. ''' copy = FormsDict() enc = copy.input_encoding = encoding or self.input_encoding copy.recode_unicode = False for key, value in self.allitems(): copy.append(self._fix(key, enc), self._fix(value, enc)) return copy
def getunicode(self, name, default=None, encoding=None): try: return self._fix(self[name], encoding) except (UnicodeError, KeyError): return default def __getattr__(self, name, default=unicode()): # Without this guard, pickle generates a cryptic TypeError: if name.startswith('__') and name.endswith('__'): return super(FormsDict, self).__getattr__(name) return self.getunicode(name, default=default)
[docs]class HeaderDict(MultiDict): """ A case-insensitive version of :class:`MultiDict` that defaults to replace the old value instead of appending it. """ def __init__(self, *a, **ka): self.dict = {} if a or ka: self.update(*a, **ka) def __contains__(self, key): return _hkey(key) in self.dict def __delitem__(self, key): del self.dict[_hkey(key)] def __getitem__(self, key): return self.dict[_hkey(key)][-1] def __setitem__(self, key, value): self.dict[_hkey(key)] = [str(value)] def append(self, key, value): self.dict.setdefault(_hkey(key), []).append(str(value)) def replace(self, key, value): self.dict[_hkey(key)] = [str(value)] def getall(self, key): return self.dict.get(_hkey(key)) or [] def get(self, key, default=None, index=-1): return MultiDict.get(self, _hkey(key), default, index) def filter(self, names): for name in [_hkey(n) for n in names]: if name in self.dict: del self.dict[name]
[docs]class WSGIHeaderDict(DictMixin): ''' This dict-like class wraps a WSGI environ dict and provides convenient access to HTTP_* fields. Keys and values are native strings (2.x bytes or 3.x unicode) and keys are case-insensitive. If the WSGI environment contains non-native string values, these are de- or encoded using a lossless 'latin1' character set. The API will remain stable even on changes to the relevant PEPs. Currently PEP 333, 444 and 3333 are supported. (PEP 444 is the only one that uses non-native strings.) ''' #: List of keys that do not have a ``HTTP_`` prefix. cgikeys = ('CONTENT_TYPE', 'CONTENT_LENGTH') def __init__(self, environ): self.environ = environ def _ekey(self, key): ''' Translate header field name to CGI/WSGI environ key. ''' key = key.replace('-','_').upper() if key in self.cgikeys: return key return 'HTTP_' + key
[docs] def raw(self, key, default=None): ''' Return the header value as is (may be bytes or unicode). ''' return self.environ.get(self._ekey(key), default)
def __getitem__(self, key): return tonat(self.environ[self._ekey(key)], 'latin1') def __setitem__(self, key, value): raise TypeError("%s is read-only." % self.__class__) def __delitem__(self, key): raise TypeError("%s is read-only." % self.__class__) def __iter__(self): for key in self.environ: if key[:5] == 'HTTP_': yield key[5:].replace('_', '-').title() elif key in self.cgikeys: yield key.replace('_', '-').title() def keys(self): return [x for x in self] def __len__(self): return len(self.keys()) def __contains__(self, key): return self._ekey(key) in self.environ
class ConfigDict(dict): ''' A dict-subclass with some extras: You can access keys like attributes. Uppercase attributes create new ConfigDicts and act as name-spaces. Other missing attributes return None. Calling a ConfigDict updates its values and returns itself. >>> cfg = ConfigDict() >>> cfg.Namespace.value = 5 >>> cfg.OtherNamespace(a=1, b=2) >>> cfg {'Namespace': {'value': 5}, 'OtherNamespace': {'a': 1, 'b': 2}} ''' def __getattr__(self, key): if key not in self and key[0].isupper(): self[key] = ConfigDict() return self.get(key) def __setattr__(self, key, value): if hasattr(dict, key): raise AttributeError('Read-only attribute.') if key in self and self[key] and isinstance(self[key], ConfigDict): raise AttributeError('Non-empty namespace attribute.') self[key] = value def __delattr__(self, key): if key in self: del self[key] def __call__(self, *a, **ka): for key, value in dict(*a, **ka).items(): setattr(self, key, value) return self
[docs]class AppStack(list): """ A stack-like list. Calling it returns the head of the stack. """ def __call__(self): """ Return the current default application. """ return self[-1]
[docs] def push(self, value=None): """ Add a new :class:`Bottle` instance to the stack """ if not isinstance(value, Bottle): value = Bottle() self.append(value) return value
class WSGIFileWrapper(object): def __init__(self, fp, buffer_size=1024*64): self.fp, self.buffer_size = fp, buffer_size for attr in ('fileno', 'close', 'read', 'readlines', 'tell', 'seek'): if hasattr(fp, attr): setattr(self, attr, getattr(fp, attr)) def __iter__(self): buff, read = self.buffer_size, self.read while True: part = read(buff) if not part: return yield part
[docs]class ResourceManager(object): ''' This class manages a list of search paths and helps to find and open application-bound resources (files). :param base: default value for :meth:`add_path` calls. :param opener: callable used to open resources. :param cachemode: controls which lookups are cached. One of 'all', 'found' or 'none'. ''' def __init__(self, base='./', opener=open, cachemode='all'): self.opener = open self.base = base self.cachemode = cachemode #: A list of search paths. See :meth:`add_path` for details. self.path = [] #: A cache for resolved paths. ``res.cache.clear()`` clears the cache. self.cache = {}
[docs] def add_path(self, path, base=None, index=None, create=False): ''' Add a new path to the list of search paths. Return False if the path does not exist. :param path: The new search path. Relative paths are turned into an absolute and normalized form. If the path looks like a file (not ending in `/`), the filename is stripped off. :param base: Path used to absolutize relative search paths. Defaults to :attr:`base` which defaults to ``os.getcwd()``. :param index: Position within the list of search paths. Defaults to last index (appends to the list). The `base` parameter makes it easy to reference files installed along with a python module or package:: res.add_path('./resources/', __file__) ''' base = os.path.abspath(os.path.dirname(base or self.base)) path = os.path.abspath(os.path.join(base, os.path.dirname(path))) path += os.sep if path in self.path: self.path.remove(path) if create and not os.path.isdir(path): os.makedirs(path) if index is None: self.path.append(path) else: self.path.insert(index, path) self.cache.clear() return os.path.exists(path)
def __iter__(self): ''' Iterate over all existing files in all registered paths. ''' search = self.path[:] while search: path = search.pop() if not os.path.isdir(path): continue for name in os.listdir(path): full = os.path.join(path, name) if os.path.isdir(full): search.append(full) else: yield full
[docs] def lookup(self, name): ''' Search for a resource and return an absolute file path, or `None`. The :attr:`path` list is searched in order. The first match is returend. Symlinks are followed. The result is cached to speed up future lookups. ''' if name not in self.cache or DEBUG: for path in self.path: fpath = os.path.join(path, name) if os.path.isfile(fpath): if self.cachemode in ('all', 'found'): self.cache[name] = fpath return fpath if self.cachemode == 'all': self.cache[name] = None return self.cache[name]
[docs] def open(self, name, mode='r', *args, **kwargs): ''' Find a resource and return a file object, or raise IOError. ''' fname = self.lookup(name) if not fname: raise IOError("Resource %r not found." % name) return self.opener(name, mode=mode, *args, **kwargs)
############################################################################### # Application Helper ########################################################### ############################################################################### def abort(code=500, text='Unknown Error: Application stopped.'): """ Aborts execution and causes a HTTP error. """ raise HTTPError(code, text) def redirect(url, code=None): """ Aborts execution and causes a 303 or 302 redirect, depending on the HTTP protocol version. """ if code is None: code = 303 if request.get('SERVER_PROTOCOL') == "HTTP/1.1" else 302 location = urljoin(request.url, url) res = HTTPResponse("", status=code, Location=location) if response._cookies: res._cookies = response._cookies raise res def _file_iter_range(fp, offset, bytes, maxread=1024*1024): ''' Yield chunks from a range in a file. No chunk is bigger than maxread.''' fp.seek(offset) while bytes > 0: part = fp.read(min(bytes, maxread)) if not part: break bytes -= len(part) yield part def static_file(filename, root, mimetype='auto', download=False): """ Open a file in a safe way and return :exc:`HTTPResponse` with status code 200, 305, 401 or 404. Set Content-Type, Content-Encoding, Content-Length and Last-Modified header. Obey If-Modified-Since header and HEAD requests. """ root = os.path.abspath(root) + os.sep filename = os.path.abspath(os.path.join(root, filename.strip('/\\'))) headers = dict() if not filename.startswith(root): return HTTPError(403, "Access denied.") if not os.path.exists(filename) or not os.path.isfile(filename): return HTTPError(404, "File does not exist.") if not os.access(filename, os.R_OK): return HTTPError(403, "You do not have permission to access this file.") if mimetype == 'auto': mimetype, encoding = mimetypes.guess_type(filename) if mimetype: headers['Content-Type'] = mimetype if encoding: headers['Content-Encoding'] = encoding elif mimetype: headers['Content-Type'] = mimetype if download: download = os.path.basename(filename if download == True else download) headers['Content-Disposition'] = 'attachment; filename="%s"' % download stats = os.stat(filename) headers['Content-Length'] = clen = stats.st_size lm = time.strftime("%a, %d %b %Y %H:%M:%S GMT", time.gmtime(stats.st_mtime)) headers['Last-Modified'] = lm ims = request.environ.get('HTTP_IF_MODIFIED_SINCE') if ims: ims = parse_date(ims.split(";")[0].strip()) if ims is not None and ims >= int(stats.st_mtime): headers['Date'] = time.strftime("%a, %d %b %Y %H:%M:%S GMT", time.gmtime()) return HTTPResponse(status=304, **headers) body = '' if request.method == 'HEAD' else open(filename, 'rb') headers["Accept-Ranges"] = "bytes" ranges = request.environ.get('HTTP_RANGE') if 'HTTP_RANGE' in request.environ: ranges = list(parse_range_header(request.environ['HTTP_RANGE'], clen)) if not ranges: return HTTPError(416, "Requested Range Not Satisfiable") offset, end = ranges[0] headers["Content-Range"] = "bytes %d-%d/%d" % (offset, end-1, clen) headers["Content-Length"] = str(end-offset) if body: body = _file_iter_range(body, offset, end-offset) return HTTPResponse(body, status=206, **headers) return HTTPResponse(body, **headers) ############################################################################### # HTTP Utilities and MISC (TODO) ############################################### ###############################################################################
[docs]def debug(mode=True): """ Change the debug level. There is only one debug level supported at the moment.""" global DEBUG DEBUG = bool(mode)
[docs]def parse_date(ims): """ Parse rfc1123, rfc850 and asctime timestamps and return UTC epoch. """ try: ts = email.utils.parsedate_tz(ims) return time.mktime(ts[:8] + (0,)) - (ts[9] or 0) - time.timezone except (TypeError, ValueError, IndexError, OverflowError): return None
[docs]def parse_auth(header): """ Parse rfc2617 HTTP authentication header string (basic) and return (user,pass) tuple or None""" try: method, data = header.split(None, 1) if method.lower() == 'basic': user, pwd = touni(base64.b64decode(tob(data))).split(':',1) return user, pwd except (KeyError, ValueError): return None
def parse_range_header(header, maxlen=0): ''' Yield (start, end) ranges parsed from a HTTP Range header. Skip unsatisfiable ranges. The end index is non-inclusive.''' if not header or header[:6] != 'bytes=': return ranges = [r.split('-', 1) for r in header[6:].split(',') if '-' in r] for start, end in ranges: try: if not start: # bytes=-100 -> last 100 bytes start, end = max(0, maxlen-int(end)), maxlen elif not end: # bytes=100- -> all but the first 99 bytes start, end = int(start), maxlen else: # bytes=100-200 -> bytes 100-200 (inclusive) start, end = int(start), min(int(end)+1, maxlen) if 0 <= start < end <= maxlen: yield start, end except ValueError: pass def _parse_qsl(qs): r = [] for pair in qs.replace(';','&').split('&'): if not pair: continue nv = pair.split('=', 1) if len(nv) != 2: nv.append('') key = urlunquote(nv[0].replace('+', ' ')) value = urlunquote(nv[1].replace('+', ' ')) r.append((key, value)) return r def _lscmp(a, b): ''' Compares two strings in a cryptographically safe way: Runtime is not affected by length of common prefix. ''' return not sum(0 if x==y else 1 for x, y in zip(a, b)) and len(a) == len(b) def html_escape(string): ''' Escape HTML special characters ``&<>`` and quotes ``'"``. ''' return string.replace('&','&amp;').replace('<','&lt;').replace('>','&gt;')\ .replace('"','&quot;').replace("'",'&#039;') def html_quote(string): ''' Escape and quote a string to be used as an HTTP attribute.''' return '"%s"' % html_escape(string).replace('\n','%#10;')\ .replace('\r','&#13;').replace('\t','&#9;')
[docs]def yieldroutes(func): """ Return a generator for routes that match the signature (name, args) of the func parameter. This may yield more than one route if the function takes optional keyword arguments. The output is best described by example:: a() -> '/a' b(x, y) -> '/b/:x/:y' c(x, y=5) -> '/c/:x' and '/c/:x/:y' d(x=5, y=6) -> '/d' and '/d/:x' and '/d/:x/:y' """ import inspect # Expensive module. Only import if necessary. path = '/' + func.__name__.replace('__','/').lstrip('/') spec = inspect.getargspec(func) argc = len(spec[0]) - len(spec[3] or []) path += ('/:%s' * argc) % tuple(spec[0][:argc]) yield path for arg in spec[0][argc:]: path += '/:%s' % arg yield path
[docs]def path_shift(script_name, path_info, shift=1): ''' Shift path fragments from PATH_INFO to SCRIPT_NAME and vice versa. :return: The modified paths. :param script_name: The SCRIPT_NAME path. :param script_name: The PATH_INFO path. :param shift: The number of path fragments to shift. May be negative to change the shift direction. (default: 1) ''' if shift == 0: return script_name, path_info pathlist = path_info.strip('/').split('/') scriptlist = script_name.strip('/').split('/') if pathlist and pathlist[0] == '': pathlist = [] if scriptlist and scriptlist[0] == '': scriptlist = [] if shift > 0 and shift <= len(pathlist): moved = pathlist[:shift] scriptlist = scriptlist + moved pathlist = pathlist[shift:] elif shift < 0 and shift >= -len(scriptlist): moved = scriptlist[shift:] pathlist = moved + pathlist scriptlist = scriptlist[:shift] else: empty = 'SCRIPT_NAME' if shift < 0 else 'PATH_INFO' raise AssertionError("Cannot shift. Nothing left from %s" % empty) new_script_name = '/' + '/'.join(scriptlist) new_path_info = '/' + '/'.join(pathlist) if path_info.endswith('/') and pathlist: new_path_info += '/' return new_script_name, new_path_info
def validate(**vkargs): """ Validates and manipulates keyword arguments by user defined callables. Handles ValueError and missing arguments by raising HTTPError(403). """ depr('Use route wildcard filters instead.') def decorator(func): @functools.wraps(func) def wrapper(*args, **kargs): for key, value in vkargs.items(): if key not in kargs: abort(403, 'Missing parameter: %s' % key) try: kargs[key] = value(kargs[key]) except ValueError: abort(403, 'Wrong parameter format for: %s' % key) return func(*args, **kargs) return wrapper return decorator def auth_basic(check, realm="private", text="Access denied"): ''' Callback decorator to require HTTP auth (basic). TODO: Add route(check_auth=...) parameter. ''' def decorator(func): def wrapper(*a, **ka): user, password = request.auth or (None, None) if user is None or not check(user, password): response.headers['WWW-Authenticate'] = 'Basic realm="%s"' % realm return HTTPError(401, text) return func(*a, **ka) return wrapper return decorator # Shortcuts for common Bottle methods. # They all refer to the current default application. def make_default_app_wrapper(name): ''' Return a callable that relays calls to the current default app. ''' @functools.wraps(getattr(Bottle, name)) def wrapper(*a, **ka): return getattr(app(), name)(*a, **ka) return wrapper route = make_default_app_wrapper('route') get = make_default_app_wrapper('get') post = make_default_app_wrapper('post') put = make_default_app_wrapper('put') delete = make_default_app_wrapper('delete') error = make_default_app_wrapper('error') mount = make_default_app_wrapper('mount') hook = make_default_app_wrapper('hook') install = make_default_app_wrapper('install') uninstall = make_default_app_wrapper('uninstall') url = make_default_app_wrapper('get_url') ############################################################################### # Server Adapter ############################################################### ############################################################################### class ServerAdapter(object): quiet = False def __init__(self, host='127.0.0.1', port=8080, **config): self.options = config self.host = host self.port = int(port) def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover pass def __repr__(self): args = ', '.join(['%s=%s'%(k,repr(v)) for k, v in self.options.items()]) return "%s(%s)" % (self.__class__.__name__, args) class CGIServer(ServerAdapter): quiet = True def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover from wsgiref.handlers import CGIHandler def fixed_environ(environ, start_response): environ.setdefault('PATH_INFO', '') return handler(environ, start_response) CGIHandler().run(fixed_environ) class FlupFCGIServer(ServerAdapter): def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover import flup.server.fcgi self.options.setdefault('bindAddress', (self.host, self.port)) flup.server.fcgi.WSGIServer(handler, **self.options).run() class WSGIRefServer(ServerAdapter): def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover from wsgiref.simple_server import make_server, WSGIRequestHandler if self.quiet: class QuietHandler(WSGIRequestHandler): def log_request(*args, **kw): pass self.options['handler_class'] = QuietHandler srv = make_server(self.host, self.port, handler, **self.options) srv.serve_forever() class CherryPyServer(ServerAdapter): def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover from cherrypy import wsgiserver server = wsgiserver.CherryPyWSGIServer((self.host, self.port), handler) try: server.start() finally: server.stop() class WaitressServer(ServerAdapter): def run(self, handler): from waitress import serve serve(handler, host=self.host, port=self.port) class PasteServer(ServerAdapter): def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover from paste import httpserver if not self.quiet: from paste.translogger import TransLogger handler = TransLogger(handler) httpserver.serve(handler, host=self.host, port=str(self.port), **self.options) class MeinheldServer(ServerAdapter): def run(self, handler): from meinheld import server server.listen((self.host, self.port)) server.run(handler) class FapwsServer(ServerAdapter): """ Extremely fast webserver using libev. See http://www.fapws.org/ """ def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover import fapws._evwsgi as evwsgi from fapws import base, config port = self.port if float(config.SERVER_IDENT[-2:]) > 0.4: # fapws3 silently changed its API in 0.5 port = str(port) evwsgi.start(self.host, port) # fapws3 never releases the GIL. Complain upstream. I tried. No luck. if 'BOTTLE_CHILD' in os.environ and not self.quiet: _stderr("WARNING: Auto-reloading does not work with Fapws3.\n") _stderr(" (Fapws3 breaks python thread support)\n") evwsgi.set_base_module(base) def app(environ, start_response): environ['wsgi.multiprocess'] = False return handler(environ, start_response) evwsgi.wsgi_cb(('', app)) evwsgi.run() class TornadoServer(ServerAdapter): """ The super hyped asynchronous server by facebook. Untested. """ def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover import tornado.wsgi, tornado.httpserver, tornado.ioloop container = tornado.wsgi.WSGIContainer(handler) server = tornado.httpserver.HTTPServer(container) server.listen(port=self.port) tornado.ioloop.IOLoop.instance().start() class AppEngineServer(ServerAdapter): """ Adapter for Google App Engine. """ quiet = True def run(self, handler): from google.appengine.ext.webapp import util # A main() function in the handler script enables 'App Caching'. # Lets makes sure it is there. This _really_ improves performance. module = sys.modules.get('__main__') if module and not hasattr(module, 'main'): module.main = lambda: util.run_wsgi_app(handler) util.run_wsgi_app(handler) class TwistedServer(ServerAdapter): """ Untested. """ def run(self, handler): from twisted.web import server, wsgi from twisted.python.threadpool import ThreadPool from twisted.internet import reactor thread_pool = ThreadPool() thread_pool.start() reactor.addSystemEventTrigger('after', 'shutdown', thread_pool.stop) factory = server.Site(wsgi.WSGIResource(reactor, thread_pool, handler)) reactor.listenTCP(self.port, factory, interface=self.host) reactor.run() class DieselServer(ServerAdapter): """ Untested. """ def run(self, handler): from diesel.protocols.wsgi import WSGIApplication app = WSGIApplication(handler, port=self.port) app.run() class GeventServer(ServerAdapter): """ Untested. Options: * `fast` (default: False) uses libevent's http server, but has some issues: No streaming, no pipelining, no SSL. """ def run(self, handler): from gevent import wsgi, pywsgi, local if not isinstance(_lctx, local.local): msg = "Bottle requires gevent.monkey.patch_all() (before import)" raise RuntimeError(msg) if not self.options.get('fast'): wsgi = pywsgi log = None if self.quiet else 'default' wsgi.WSGIServer((self.host, self.port), handler, log=log).serve_forever() class GunicornServer(ServerAdapter): """ Untested. See http://gunicorn.org/configure.html for options. """ def run(self, handler): from gunicorn.app.base import Application config = {'bind': "%s:%d" % (self.host, int(self.port))} config.update(self.options) class GunicornApplication(Application): def init(self, parser, opts, args): return config def load(self): return handler GunicornApplication().run() class EventletServer(ServerAdapter): """ Untested """ def run(self, handler): from eventlet import wsgi, listen try: wsgi.server(listen((self.host, self.port)), handler, log_output=(not self.quiet)) except TypeError: # Fallback, if we have old version of eventlet wsgi.server(listen((self.host, self.port)), handler) class RocketServer(ServerAdapter): """ Untested. """ def run(self, handler): from rocket import Rocket server = Rocket((self.host, self.port), 'wsgi', { 'wsgi_app' : handler }) server.start() class BjoernServer(ServerAdapter): """ Fast server written in C: https://github.com/jonashaag/bjoern """ def run(self, handler): from bjoern import run run(handler, self.host, self.port) class AutoServer(ServerAdapter): """ Untested. """ adapters = [WaitressServer, PasteServer, TwistedServer, CherryPyServer, WSGIRefServer] def run(self, handler): for sa in self.adapters: try: return sa(self.host, self.port, **self.options).run(handler) except ImportError: pass server_names = { 'cgi': CGIServer, 'flup': FlupFCGIServer, 'wsgiref': WSGIRefServer, 'waitress': WaitressServer, 'cherrypy': CherryPyServer, 'paste': PasteServer, 'fapws3': FapwsServer, 'tornado': TornadoServer, 'gae': AppEngineServer, 'twisted': TwistedServer, 'diesel': DieselServer, 'meinheld': MeinheldServer, 'gunicorn': GunicornServer, 'eventlet': EventletServer, 'gevent': GeventServer, 'rocket': RocketServer, 'bjoern' : BjoernServer, 'auto': AutoServer, } ############################################################################### # Application Control ########################################################## ###############################################################################
[docs]def load(target, **namespace): """ Import a module or fetch an object from a module. * ``package.module`` returns `module` as a module object. * ``pack.mod:name`` returns the module variable `name` from `pack.mod`. * ``pack.mod:func()`` calls `pack.mod.func()` and returns the result. The last form accepts not only function calls, but any type of expression. Keyword arguments passed to this function are available as local variables. Example: ``import_string('re:compile(x)', x='[a-z]')`` """ module, target = target.split(":", 1) if ':' in target else (target, None) if module not in sys.modules: __import__(module) if not target: return sys.modules[module] if target.isalnum(): return getattr(sys.modules[module], target) package_name = module.split('.')[0] namespace[package_name] = sys.modules[package_name] return eval('%s.%s' % (module, target), namespace)
[docs]def load_app(target): """ Load a bottle application from a module and make sure that the import does not affect the current default application, but returns a separate application object. See :func:`load` for the target parameter. """ global NORUN; NORUN, nr_old = True, NORUN try: tmp = default_app.push() # Create a new "default application" rv = load(target) # Import the target module return rv if callable(rv) else tmp finally: default_app.remove(tmp) # Remove the temporary added default application NORUN = nr_old
_debug = debug
[docs]def run(app=None, server='wsgiref', host='127.0.0.1', port=8080, interval=1, reloader=False, quiet=False, plugins=None, debug=None, **kargs): """ Start a server instance. This method blocks until the server terminates. :param app: WSGI application or target string supported by :func:`load_app`. (default: :func:`default_app`) :param server: Server adapter to use. See :data:`server_names` keys for valid names or pass a :class:`ServerAdapter` subclass. (default: `wsgiref`) :param host: Server address to bind to. Pass ``0.0.0.0`` to listens on all interfaces including the external one. (default: 127.0.0.1) :param port: Server port to bind to. Values below 1024 require root privileges. (default: 8080) :param reloader: Start auto-reloading server? (default: False) :param interval: Auto-reloader interval in seconds (default: 1) :param quiet: Suppress output to stdout and stderr? (default: False) :param options: Options passed to the server adapter. """ if NORUN: return if reloader and not os.environ.get('BOTTLE_CHILD'): try: lockfile = None fd, lockfile = tempfile.mkstemp(prefix='bottle.', suffix='.lock') os.close(fd) # We only need this file to exist. We never write to it while os.path.exists(lockfile): args = [sys.executable] + sys.argv environ = os.environ.copy() environ['BOTTLE_CHILD'] = 'true' environ['BOTTLE_LOCKFILE'] = lockfile p = subprocess.Popen(args, env=environ) while p.poll() is None: # Busy wait... os.utime(lockfile, None) # I am alive! time.sleep(interval) if p.poll() != 3: if os.path.exists(lockfile): os.unlink(lockfile) sys.exit(p.poll()) except KeyboardInterrupt: pass finally: if os.path.exists(lockfile): os.unlink(lockfile) return try: if debug is not None: _debug(debug) app = app or default_app() if isinstance(app, basestring): app = load_app(app) if not callable(app): raise ValueError("Application is not callable: %r" % app) for plugin in plugins or []: app.install(plugin) if server in server_names: server = server_names.get(server) if isinstance(server, basestring): server = load(server) if isinstance(server, type): server = server(host=host, port=port, **kargs) if not isinstance(server, ServerAdapter): raise ValueError("Unknown or unsupported server: %r" % server) server.quiet = server.quiet or quiet if not server.quiet: _stderr("Bottle v%s server starting up (using %s)...\n" % (__version__, repr(server))) _stderr("Listening on http://%s:%d/\n" % (server.host, server.port)) _stderr("Hit Ctrl-C to quit.\n\n") if reloader: lockfile = os.environ.get('BOTTLE_LOCKFILE') bgcheck = FileCheckerThread(lockfile, interval) with bgcheck: server.run(app) if bgcheck.status == 'reload': sys.exit(3) else: server.run(app) except KeyboardInterrupt: pass except (SystemExit, MemoryError): raise except: if not reloader: raise if not getattr(server, 'quiet', quiet): print_exc() time.sleep(interval) sys.exit(3)
class FileCheckerThread(threading.Thread): ''' Interrupt main-thread as soon as a changed module file is detected, the lockfile gets deleted or gets to old. ''' def __init__(self, lockfile, interval): threading.Thread.__init__(self) self.lockfile, self.interval = lockfile, interval #: Is one of 'reload', 'error' or 'exit' self.status = None def run(self): exists = os.path.exists mtime = lambda path: os.stat(path).st_mtime files = dict() for module in list(sys.modules.values()): path = getattr(module, '__file__', '') if path[-4:] in ('.pyo', '.pyc'): path = path[:-1] if path and exists(path): files[path] = mtime(path) while not self.status: if not exists(self.lockfile)\ or mtime(self.lockfile) < time.time() - self.interval - 5: self.status = 'error' thread.interrupt_main() for path, lmtime in list(files.items()): if not exists(path) or mtime(path) > lmtime: self.status = 'reload' thread.interrupt_main() break time.sleep(self.interval) def __enter__(self): self.start() def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_val, exc_tb): if not self.status: self.status = 'exit' # silent exit self.join() return exc_type is not None and issubclass(exc_type, KeyboardInterrupt) ############################################################################### # Template Adapters ############################################################ ############################################################################### class TemplateError(HTTPError): def __init__(self, message): HTTPError.__init__(self, 500, message)
[docs]class BaseTemplate(object): """ Base class and minimal API for template adapters """ extensions = ['tpl','html','thtml','stpl'] settings = {} #used in prepare() defaults = {} #used in render()
[docs] def __init__(self, source=None, name=None, lookup=[], encoding='utf8', **settings): """ Create a new template. If the source parameter (str or buffer) is missing, the name argument is used to guess a template filename. Subclasses can assume that self.source and/or self.filename are set. Both are strings. The lookup, encoding and settings parameters are stored as instance variables. The lookup parameter stores a list containing directory paths. The encoding parameter should be used to decode byte strings or files. The settings parameter contains a dict for engine-specific settings. """ self.name = name self.source = source.read() if hasattr(source, 'read') else source self.filename = source.filename if hasattr(source, 'filename') else None self.lookup = [os.path.abspath(x) for x in lookup] self.encoding = encoding self.settings = self.settings.copy() # Copy from class variable self.settings.update(settings) # Apply if not self.source and self.name: self.filename = self.search(self.name, self.lookup) if not self.filename: raise TemplateError('Template %s not found.' % repr(name)) if not self.source and not self.filename: raise TemplateError('No template specified.') self.prepare(**self.settings)
@classmethod
[docs] def search(cls, name, lookup=[]): """ Search name in all directories specified in lookup. First without, then with common extensions. Return first hit. """ if not lookup: depr('The template lookup path list should not be empty.') lookup = ['.'] if os.path.isabs(name) and os.path.isfile(name): depr('Absolute template path names are deprecated.') return os.path.abspath(name) for spath in lookup: spath = os.path.abspath(spath) + os.sep fname = os.path.abspath(os.path.join(spath, name)) if not fname.startswith(spath): continue if os.path.isfile(fname): return fname for ext in cls.extensions: if os.path.isfile('%s.%s' % (fname, ext)): return '%s.%s' % (fname, ext)
@classmethod
[docs] def global_config(cls, key, *args): ''' This reads or sets the global settings stored in class.settings. ''' if args: cls.settings = cls.settings.copy() # Make settings local to class cls.settings[key] = args[0] else: return cls.settings[key]
[docs] def prepare(self, **options): """ Run preparations (parsing, caching, ...). It should be possible to call this again to refresh a template or to update settings. """ raise NotImplementedError
[docs] def render(self, *args, **kwargs): """ Render the template with the specified local variables and return a single byte or unicode string. If it is a byte string, the encoding must match self.encoding. This method must be thread-safe! Local variables may be provided in dictionaries (*args) or directly, as keywords (**kwargs). """ raise NotImplementedError
class MakoTemplate(BaseTemplate): def prepare(self, **options): from mako.template import Template from mako.lookup import TemplateLookup options.update({'input_encoding':self.encoding}) options.setdefault('format_exceptions', bool(DEBUG)) lookup = TemplateLookup(directories=self.lookup, **options) if self.source: self.tpl = Template(self.source, lookup=lookup, **options) else: self.tpl = Template(uri=self.name, filename=self.filename, lookup=lookup, **options) def render(self, *args, **kwargs): for dictarg in args: kwargs.update(dictarg) _defaults = self.defaults.copy() _defaults.update(kwargs) return self.tpl.render(**_defaults) class CheetahTemplate(BaseTemplate): def prepare(self, **options): from Cheetah.Template import Template self.context = threading.local() self.context.vars = {} options['searchList'] = [self.context.vars] if self.source: self.tpl = Template(source=self.source, **options) else: self.tpl = Template(file=self.filename, **options) def render(self, *args, **kwargs): for dictarg in args: kwargs.update(dictarg) self.context.vars.update(self.defaults) self.context.vars.update(kwargs) out = str(self.tpl) self.context.vars.clear() return out class Jinja2Template(BaseTemplate): def prepare(self, filters=None, tests=None, **kwargs): from jinja2 import Environment, FunctionLoader if 'prefix' in kwargs: # TODO: to be removed after a while raise RuntimeError('The keyword argument `prefix` has been removed. ' 'Use the full jinja2 environment name line_statement_prefix instead.') self.env = Environment(loader=FunctionLoader(self.loader), **kwargs) if filters: self.env.filters.update(filters) if tests: self.env.tests.update(tests) if self.source: self.tpl = self.env.from_string(self.source) else: self.tpl = self.env.get_template(self.filename) def render(self, *args, **kwargs): for dictarg in args: kwargs.update(dictarg) _defaults = self.defaults.copy() _defaults.update(kwargs) return self.tpl.render(**_defaults) def loader(self, name): fname = self.search(name, self.lookup) if not fname: return with open(fname, "rb") as f: return f.read().decode(self.encoding) class SimpleTALTemplate(BaseTemplate): ''' Deprecated, do not use. ''' def prepare(self, **options): depr('The SimpleTAL template handler is deprecated'\ ' and will be removed in 0.12') from simpletal import simpleTAL if self.source: self.tpl = simpleTAL.compileHTMLTemplate(self.source) else: with open(self.filename, 'rb') as fp: self.tpl = simpleTAL.compileHTMLTemplate(tonat(fp.read())) def render(self, *args, **kwargs): from simpletal import simpleTALES for dictarg in args: kwargs.update(dictarg) context = simpleTALES.Context() for k,v in self.defaults.items(): context.addGlobal(k, v) for k,v in kwargs.items(): context.addGlobal(k, v) output = StringIO() self.tpl.expand(context, output) return output.getvalue()
[docs]class SimpleTemplate(BaseTemplate): blocks = ('if', 'elif', 'else', 'try', 'except', 'finally', 'for', 'while', 'with', 'def', 'class') dedent_blocks = ('elif', 'else', 'except', 'finally') @lazy_attribute def re_pytokens(cls): ''' This matches comments and all kinds of quoted strings but does NOT match comments (#...) within quoted strings. (trust me) ''' return re.compile(r''' (''(?!')|""(?!")|'{6}|"{6} # Empty strings (all 4 types) |'(?:[^\\']|\\.)+?' # Single quotes (') |"(?:[^\\"]|\\.)+?" # Double quotes (") |'{3}(?:[^\\]|\\.|\n)+?'{3} # Triple-quoted strings (') |"{3}(?:[^\\]|\\.|\n)+?"{3} # Triple-quoted strings (") |\#.* # Comments )''', re.VERBOSE) def prepare(self, escape_func=html_escape, noescape=False, **kwargs): self.cache = {} enc = self.encoding self._str = lambda x: touni(x, enc) self._escape = lambda x: escape_func(touni(x, enc)) if noescape: self._str, self._escape = self._escape, self._str @classmethod
[docs] def split_comment(cls, code): """ Removes comments (#...) from python code. """ if '#' not in code: return code #: Remove comments only (leave quoted strings as they are) subf = lambda m: '' if m.group(0)[0]=='#' else m.group(0) return re.sub(cls.re_pytokens, subf, code)
@cached_property def co(self): return compile(self.code, self.filename or '<string>', 'exec') @cached_property def code(self): stack = [] # Current Code indentation lineno = 0 # Current line of code ptrbuffer = [] # Buffer for printable strings and token tuple instances codebuffer = [] # Buffer for generated python code multiline = dedent = oneline = False template = self.source or open(self.filename, 'rb').read() def yield_tokens(line): for i, part in enumerate(re.split(r'\{\{(.*?)\}\}', line)): if i % 2: if part.startswith('!'): yield 'RAW', part[1:] else: yield 'CMD', part else: yield 'TXT', part def flush(): # Flush the ptrbuffer if not ptrbuffer: return cline = '' for line in ptrbuffer: for token, value in line: if token == 'TXT': cline += repr(value) elif token == 'RAW': cline += '_str(%s)' % value elif token == 'CMD': cline += '_escape(%s)' % value cline += ', ' cline = cline[:-2] + '\\\n' cline = cline[:-2] if cline[:-1].endswith('\\\\\\\\\\n'): cline = cline[:-7] + cline[-1] # 'nobr\\\\\n' --> 'nobr' cline = '_printlist([' + cline + '])' del ptrbuffer[:] # Do this before calling code() again code(cline) def code(stmt): for line in stmt.splitlines(): codebuffer.append(' ' * len(stack) + line.strip()) for line in template.splitlines(True): lineno += 1 line = touni(line, self.encoding) sline = line.lstrip() if lineno <= 2: m = re.match(r"%\s*#.*coding[:=]\s*([-\w.]+)", sline) if m: self.encoding = m.group(1) if m: line = line.replace('coding','coding (removed)') if sline and sline[0] == '%' and sline[:2] != '%%': line = line.split('%',1)[1].lstrip() # Full line following the % cline = self.split_comment(line).strip() cmd = re.split(r'[^a-zA-Z0-9_]', cline)[0] flush() # You are actually reading this? Good luck, it's a mess :) if cmd in self.blocks or multiline: cmd = multiline or cmd dedent = cmd in self.dedent_blocks # "else:" if dedent and not oneline and not multiline: cmd = stack.pop() code(line) oneline = not cline.endswith(':') # "if 1: pass" multiline = cmd if cline.endswith('\\') else False if not oneline and not multiline: stack.append(cmd) elif cmd == 'end' and stack: code('#end(%s) %s' % (stack.pop(), line.strip()[3:])) elif cmd == 'include': p = cline.split(None, 2)[1:] if len(p) == 2: code("_=_include(%s, _stdout, %s)" % (repr(p[0]), p[1])) elif p: code("_=_include(%s, _stdout)" % repr(p[0])) else: # Empty %include -> reverse of %rebase code("_printlist(_base)") elif cmd == 'rebase': p = cline.split(None, 2)[1:] if len(p) == 2: code("globals()['_rebase']=(%s, dict(%s))" % (repr(p[0]), p[1])) elif p: code("globals()['_rebase']=(%s, {})" % repr(p[0])) else: code(line) else: # Line starting with text (not '%') or '%%' (escaped) if line.strip().startswith('%%'): line = line.replace('%%', '%', 1) ptrbuffer.append(yield_tokens(line)) flush() return '\n'.join(codebuffer) + '\n' def subtemplate(self, _name, _stdout, *args, **kwargs): for dictarg in args: kwargs.update(dictarg) if _name not in self.cache: self.cache[_name] = self.__class__(name=_name, lookup=self.lookup) return self.cache[_name].execute(_stdout, kwargs) def execute(self, _stdout, *args, **kwargs): for dictarg in args: kwargs.update(dictarg) env = self.defaults.copy() env.update({'_stdout': _stdout, '_printlist': _stdout.extend, '_include': self.subtemplate, '_str': self._str, '_escape': self._escape, 'get': env.get, 'setdefault': env.setdefault, 'defined': env.__contains__}) env.update(kwargs) eval(self.co, env) if '_rebase' in env: subtpl, rargs = env['_rebase'] rargs['_base'] = _stdout[:] #copy stdout del _stdout[:] # clear stdout return self.subtemplate(subtpl,_stdout,rargs) return env
[docs] def render(self, *args, **kwargs): """ Render the template using keyword arguments as local variables. """ for dictarg in args: kwargs.update(dictarg) stdout = [] self.execute(stdout, kwargs) return ''.join(stdout)
[docs]def template(*args, **kwargs): ''' Get a rendered template as a string iterator. You can use a name, a filename or a template string as first parameter. Template rendering arguments can be passed as dictionaries or directly (as keyword arguments). ''' tpl = args[0] if args else None adapter = kwargs.pop('template_adapter', SimpleTemplate) lookup = kwargs.pop('template_lookup', TEMPLATE_PATH) tplid = (id(lookup), tpl) if tplid not in TEMPLATES or DEBUG: settings = kwargs.pop('template_settings', {}) if isinstance(tpl, adapter): TEMPLATES[tplid] = tpl if settings: TEMPLATES[tplid].prepare(**settings) elif "\n" in tpl or "{" in tpl or "%" in tpl or '$' in tpl: TEMPLATES[tplid] = adapter(source=tpl, lookup=lookup, **settings) else: TEMPLATES[tplid] = adapter(name=tpl, lookup=lookup, **settings) if not TEMPLATES[tplid]: abort(500, 'Template (%s) not found' % tpl) for dictarg in args[1:]: kwargs.update(dictarg) return TEMPLATES[tplid].render(kwargs)
mako_template = functools.partial(template, template_adapter=MakoTemplate) cheetah_template = functools.partial(template, template_adapter=CheetahTemplate) jinja2_template = functools.partial(template, template_adapter=Jinja2Template) simpletal_template = functools.partial(template, template_adapter=SimpleTALTemplate)
[docs]def view(tpl_name, **defaults): ''' Decorator: renders a template for a handler. The handler can control its behavior like that: - return a dict of template vars to fill out the template - return something other than a dict and the view decorator will not process the template, but return the handler result as is. This includes returning a HTTPResponse(dict) to get, for instance, JSON with autojson or other castfilters. ''' def decorator(func): @functools.wraps(func) def wrapper(*args, **kwargs): result = func(*args, **kwargs) if isinstance(result, (dict, DictMixin)): tplvars = defaults.copy() tplvars.update(result) return template(tpl_name, **tplvars) return result return wrapper return decorator
mako_view = functools.partial(view, template_adapter=MakoTemplate) cheetah_view = functools.partial(view, template_adapter=CheetahTemplate) jinja2_view = functools.partial(view, template_adapter=Jinja2Template) simpletal_view = functools.partial(view, template_adapter=SimpleTALTemplate) ############################################################################### # Constants and Globals ######################################################## ############################################################################### TEMPLATE_PATH = ['./', './views/'] TEMPLATES = {} DEBUG = False NORUN = False # If set, run() does nothing. Used by load_app() #: A dict to map HTTP status codes (e.g. 404) to phrases (e.g. 'Not Found') HTTP_CODES = httplib.responses HTTP_CODES[418] = "I'm a teapot" # RFC 2324 HTTP_CODES[428] = "Precondition Required" HTTP_CODES[429] = "Too Many Requests" HTTP_CODES[431] = "Request Header Fields Too Large" HTTP_CODES[511] = "Network Authentication Required" _HTTP_STATUS_LINES = dict((k, '%d %s'%(k,v)) for (k,v) in HTTP_CODES.items()) #: The default template used for error pages. Override with @error() ERROR_PAGE_TEMPLATE = """ %%try: %%from %s import DEBUG, HTTP_CODES, request, touni <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//IETF//DTD HTML 2.0//EN"> <html> <head> <title>Error: {{e.status}}</title> <style type="text/css"> html {background-color: #eee; font-family: sans;} body {background-color: #fff; border: 1px solid #ddd; padding: 15px; margin: 15px;} pre {background-color: #eee; border: 1px solid #ddd; padding: 5px;} </style> </head> <body> <h1>Error: {{e.status}}</h1> <p>Sorry, the requested URL <tt>{{repr(request.url)}}</tt> caused an error:</p> <pre>{{e.body}}</pre> %%if DEBUG and e.exception: <h2>Exception:</h2> <pre>{{repr(e.exception)}}</pre> %%end %%if DEBUG and e.traceback: <h2>Traceback:</h2> <pre>{{e.traceback}}</pre> %%end </body> </html> %%except ImportError: <b>ImportError:</b> Could not generate the error page. Please add bottle to the import path. %%end """ % __name__ #: A thread-safe instance of :class:`LocalRequest`. If accessed from within a #: request callback, this instance always refers to the *current* request #: (even on a multithreaded server). request = LocalRequest() #: A thread-safe instance of :class:`LocalResponse`. It is used to change the #: HTTP response for the *current* request. response = LocalResponse() #: A thread-safe namespace. Not used by Bottle. local = threading.local() # Initialize app stack (create first empty Bottle app) # BC: 0.6.4 and needed for run() app = default_app = AppStack() app.push() #: A virtual package that redirects import statements. #: Example: ``import bottle.ext.sqlite`` actually imports `bottle_sqlite`. ext = _ImportRedirect('bottle.ext' if __name__ == '__main__' else __name__+".ext", 'bottle_%s').module if __name__ == '__main__': opt, args, parser = _cmd_options, _cmd_args, _cmd_parser if opt.version: _stdout('Bottle %s\n'%__version__) sys.exit(0) if not args: parser.print_help() _stderr('\nError: No application specified.\n') sys.exit(1) sys.path.insert(0, '.') sys.modules.setdefault('bottle', sys.modules['__main__']) host, port = (opt.bind or 'localhost'), 8080 if ':' in host: host, port = host.rsplit(':', 1) run(args[0], host=host, port=port, server=opt.server, reloader=opt.reload, plugins=opt.plugin, debug=opt.debug) # THE END