This is a mostly auto-generated API. If you are new to bottle, you might find the narrative Tutorial more helpful.
The module defines several functions, constants, and an exception.
Change the debug level. There is only one debug level supported at the moment.
Start a server instance. This method blocks until the server terminates.
Import a module or fetch an object from a module.
The last form accepts not only function calls, but any type of expression. Keyword arguments passed to this function are available as local variables. Example: import_string('re:compile(x)', x='[a-z]')
Load a bottle application from a module and make sure that the import does not affect the current default application, but returns a separate application object. See load() for the target parameter.
A thread-safe instance of LocalRequest. If accessed from within a request callback, this instance always refers to the current request (even on a multithreaded server).
A thread-safe instance of LocalResponse. It is used to change the HTTP response for the current request.
A dict to map HTTP status codes (e.g. 404) to phrases (e.g. ‘Not Found’)
Decorator to install a route to the current default application. See Bottle.route() for details.
Parse rfc1123, rfc850 and asctime timestamps and return UTC epoch.
Parse rfc2617 HTTP authentication header string (basic) and return (user,pass) tuple or None
Encode and sign a pickle-able object. Return a (byte) string
Verify and decode an encoded string. Return an object or None.
Return True if the argument looks like a encoded cookie.
Return a generator for routes that match the signature (name, args) of the func parameter. This may yield more than one route if the function takes optional keyword arguments. The output is best described by example:
a() -> '/a' b(x, y) -> '/b/:x/:y' c(x, y=5) -> '/c/:x' and '/c/:x/:y' d(x=5, y=6) -> '/d' and '/d/:x' and '/d/:x/:y'
Shift path fragments from PATH_INFO to SCRIPT_NAME and vice versa.
The modified paths.
This dict stores multiple values per key, but behaves exactly like a normal dict in that it returns only the newest value for any given key. There are special methods available to access the full list of values.
Return the most recent value for a key.
Add a new value to the list of values for this key.
Replace the list of values with a single value.
Return a (possibly empty) list of values for a key.
Aliases for WTForms to mimic other multi-dict APIs (Django)
Return a (possibly empty) list of values for a key.
A case-insensitive version of MultiDict that defaults to replace the old value instead of appending it.
This MultiDict subclass is used to store request form data. Additionally to the normal dict-like item access methods (which return unmodified data as native strings), this container also supports attribute-like access to its values. Attributes are automatically de- or recoded to match input_encoding (default: ‘utf8’). Missing attributes default to an empty string.
Encoding used for attribute values.
If true (default), unicode strings are first encoded with latin1 and then decoded to match input_encoding.
This dict-like class wraps a WSGI environ dict and provides convenient access to HTTP_* fields. Keys and values are native strings (2.x bytes or 3.x unicode) and keys are case-insensitive. If the WSGI environment contains non-native string values, these are de- or encoded using a lossless ‘latin1’ character set.
The API will remain stable even on changes to the relevant PEPs. Currently PEP 333, 444 and 3333 are supported. (PEP 444 is the only one that uses non-native strings.)
List of keys that do not have a HTTP_ prefix.
Return the header value as is (may be bytes or unicode).
A stack-like list. Calling it returns the head of the stack.
Return the current default application and remove it from the stack.
This class manages a list of search paths and helps to find and open application-bound resources (files).
A cache for resolved paths. res.cache.clear() clears the cache.
Add a new path to the list of search paths. Return False if the path does not exist.
The base parameter makes it easy to reference files installed along with a python module or package:
Search for a resource and return an absolute file path, or None.
The path list is searched in order. The first match is returend. Symlinks are followed. The result is cached to speed up future lookups.
Find a resource and return a file object, or raise IOError.
Each Bottle object represents a single, distinct web application and consists of routes, callbacks, plugins, resources and configuration. Instances are callable WSGI applications.
|Parameters:||catchall – If true (default), handle all exceptions. Turn off to let debugging middleware handle exceptions.|
A ConfigDict for app specific configuration.
Mount an application (Bottle or plain WSGI) to a specific URL prefix. Example:
All other parameters are passed to the underlying route() call.
Add a plugin to the list of plugins and prepare it for being applied to all routes of this application. A plugin may be a simple decorator or an object that implements the Plugin API.
Uninstall plugins. Pass an instance to remove a specific plugin, a type object to remove all plugins that match that type, a string to remove all plugins with a matching name attribute or True to remove all plugins. Return the list of removed plugins.
Reset all routes (force plugins to be re-applied) and clear all caches. If an ID or route object is given, only that specific route is affected.
Close the application and all installed plugins.
Return a string that matches a named route
A decorator to bind a function to a request URL. Example:
@app.route('/hello/:name') def hello(name): return 'Hello %s' % name
The :name part is a wildcard. See Router for syntax details.
Any additional keyword arguments are stored as route-specific configuration and passed to plugins (see Plugin.apply()).
Decorator: Register an output handler for a HTTP error code
Return a decorator that attaches a callback to a hook. Three hooks are currently implemented:
(deprecated) Execute the first matching route callback and return the result. HTTPResponse exceptions are caught and returned. If Bottle.catchall is true, other exceptions are caught as well and returned as HTTPError instances (500).
The bottle WSGI-interface.
This class wraps a route callback along with route specific metadata and configuration and applies Plugins on demand. It is also responsible for turing an URL path rule into a regular expression usable by the Router.
The application this route is installed to.
The path-rule string (e.g. /wiki/:page).
The HTTP method as a string (e.g. GET).
The original callback with no plugins applied. Useful for introspection.
The name of the route (if specified) or None.
Additional keyword arguments passed to the Bottle.route() decorator are stored in this dictionary. Used for route-specific plugin configuration and meta-data.
Forget any cached values. The next time call is accessed, all plugins are re-applied.
Do all on-demand work immediately (useful for debugging).
Yield all Plugins affecting this route.
The Request class wraps a WSGI environment and provides helpful methods to parse and access form data, cookies, file uploads and other metadata. Most of the attributes are read-only.
A wrapper for WSGI environment dictionaries that adds a lot of convenient access methods and properties. Most of them are read-only.
Adding new attributes to a request actually adds them to the environ dictionary (as ‘bottle.request.ext.<name>’). This is the recommended way to store and access request-specific data.
Maximum number pr GET or POST parameters per request
The wrapped WSGI environ dictionary. This is the only real attribute. All other attributes actually are read-only properties.
Bottle application handling this request.
The value of PATH_INFO with exactly one prefixed slash (to fix broken clients and avoid the “empty path” edge case).
The REQUEST_METHOD value as an uppercase string.
Return the value of a request header, or a given default value.
Return the content of a cookie. To read a Signed Cookie, the secret must match the one used to create the cookie (see BaseResponse.set_cookie()). If anything goes wrong (missing cookie or wrong signature), return a default value.
Form values parsed from an url-encoded or multipart/form-data encoded POST or PUT request body. The result is retuned as a FormsDict. All keys and values are strings. File uploads are stored separately in files.
File uploads parsed from an url-encoded or multipart/form-data encoded POST or PUT request body. The values are instances of cgi.FieldStorage. The most important attributes are:
If the Content-Type header is application/json, this property holds the parsed content of the request body. Only requests smaller than MEMFILE_MAX are processed to avoid memory exhaustion.
The HTTP request body as a seek-able file-like object. Depending on MEMFILE_MAX, this is either a temporary file or a io.BytesIO instance. Accessing this property for the first time reads and replaces the wsgi.input environ variable. Subsequent accesses just do a seek(0) on the file object.
The full request URI including hostname and scheme. If your app lives behind a reverse proxy or load balancer and you get confusing results, make sure that the X-Forwarded-Host header is set correctly.
The initial portion of the URL’s path that was removed by a higher level (server or routing middleware) before the application was called. This script path is returned with leading and tailing slashes.
|Parameters:||shift – The number of path segments to shift. May be negative to change the shift direction. (default: 1)|
The request body length as an integer. The client is responsible to set this header. Otherwise, the real length of the body is unknown and -1 is returned. In this case, body will be empty.
The Content-Type header as a lowercase-string (default: empty).
HTTP authentication data as a (user, password) tuple. This implementation currently supports basic (not digest) authentication only. If the authentication happened at a higher level (e.g. in the front web-server or a middleware), the password field is None, but the user field is looked up from the REMOTE_USER environ variable. On any errors, None is returned.
A list of all IPs that were involved in this request, starting with the client IP and followed by zero or more proxies. This does only work if all proxies support the `X-Forwarded-For header. Note that this information can be forged by malicious clients.
The client IP as a string. Note that this information can be forged by malicious clients.
The module-level bottle.request is a proxy object (implemented in LocalRequest) and always refers to the current request, or in other words, the request that is currently processed by the request handler in the current thread. This thread locality ensures that you can safely use a global instance in a multi-threaded environment.
A thread-local subclass of BaseRequest with a different set of attribues for each thread. There is usually only one global instance of this class (request). If accessed during a request/response cycle, this instance always refers to the current request (even on a multithreaded server).
Wrap a WSGI environ dictionary.
Thread-local property stored in _lctx.request_environ
The Response class stores the HTTP status code as well as headers and cookies that are to be sent to the client. Similar to bottle.request there is a thread-local bottle.response instance that can be used to adjust the current response. Moreover, you can instantiate Response and return it from your request handler. In this case, the custom instance overrules the headers and cookies defined in the global one.
Storage class for a response body as well as headers and cookies.
This class does support dict-like case-insensitive item-access to headers, but is NOT a dict. Most notably, iterating over a response yields parts of the body and not the headers.
Returns a copy of self.
The HTTP status line as a string (e.g. 404 Not Found).
The HTTP status code as an integer (e.g. 404).
A writeable property to change the HTTP response status. It accepts either a numeric code (100-999) or a string with a custom reason phrase (e.g. “404 Brain not found”). Both status_line and status_code are updated accordingly. The return value is always a status string.
Return the value of a previously defined header. If there is no header with that name, return a default value.
Create a new response header, replacing any previously defined headers with the same name.
Add an additional response header, not removing duplicates.
Yield (header, value) tuples, skipping headers that are not allowed with the current response status code.
WSGI conform list of (header, value) tuples.
Current value of the ‘Content-Type’ header.
Current value of the ‘Content-Length’ header.
Return the charset specified in the content-type header (default: utf8).
Create a new cookie or replace an old one. If the secret parameter is set, create a Signed Cookie (described below).
Additionally, this method accepts all RFC 2109 attributes that are supported by cookie.Morsel, including:
If neither expires nor max_age is set (default), the cookie will expire at the end of the browser session (as soon as the browser window is closed).
Signed cookies may store any pickle-able object and are cryptographically signed to prevent manipulation. Keep in mind that cookies are limited to 4kb in most browsers.
Warning: Signed cookies are not encrypted (the client can still see the content) and not copy-protected (the client can restore an old cookie). The main intention is to make pickling and unpickling save, not to store secret information at client side.
Delete a cookie. Be sure to use the same domain and path settings as used to create the cookie.
A thread-local subclass of BaseResponse with a different set of attribues for each thread. There is usually only one global instance of this class (response). Its attributes are used to build the HTTP response at the end of the request/response cycle.
Thread-local property stored in _lctx.response_body
Base class and minimal API for template adapters
Create a new template. If the source parameter (str or buffer) is missing, the name argument is used to guess a template filename. Subclasses can assume that self.source and/or self.filename are set. Both are strings. The lookup, encoding and settings parameters are stored as instance variables. The lookup parameter stores a list containing directory paths. The encoding parameter should be used to decode byte strings or files. The settings parameter contains a dict for engine-specific settings.
Search name in all directories specified in lookup. First without, then with common extensions. Return first hit.
This reads or sets the global settings stored in class.settings.
Run preparations (parsing, caching, ...). It should be possible to call this again to refresh a template or to update settings.
Render the template with the specified local variables and return a single byte or unicode string. If it is a byte string, the encoding must match self.encoding. This method must be thread-safe! Local variables may be provided in dictionaries (*args) or directly, as keywords (**kwargs).
Decorator: renders a template for a handler. The handler can control its behavior like that:
- return a dict of template vars to fill out the template
- return something other than a dict and the view decorator will not process the template, but return the handler result as is. This includes returning a HTTPResponse(dict) to get, for instance, JSON with autojson or other castfilters.
Get a rendered template as a string iterator. You can use a name, a filename or a template string as first parameter. Template rendering arguments can be passed as dictionaries or directly (as keyword arguments).
You can write your own adapter for your favourite template engine or use one of the predefined adapters. Currently there are four fully supported template engines:
To use MakoTemplate as your default template engine, just import its specialised decorator and render function:
from bottle import mako_view as view, mako_template as template